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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Volume 17(2); December 2000
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Reviews
Kawasaki Disease.
Young Hwan Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):99-107.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.99
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Kawasaki disease, an acute febrile illness which primarily affects in children under the age of six, was first described by Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967. It has been reported that Kawasaki disease is probable driven by abnormalities of the immune system after an infectious insult, but this has not been confirmed. It mainly affects small and medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. Deaths may occur at any time with cardiovascular complications. The early recognition and treatment with follow-up evaluation for the coronary arterial lesion is very important in a case of Kawasaki disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk factors for the occurrence and persistence of coronary aneurysms in Kawasaki disease
    Soo-kyeong Jeon, Geena Kim, Hoon Ko, Joung-Hee Byun, Hyoung Doo Lee
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2019; 62(4): 138.     CrossRef
Neurobiological Pathophysiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Hyung Bae Park, Yeol Joo
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):108-122.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.108
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) that have proposed a hypodopaminergic state resulting in hypofunction of the prefrontal circuitry have assumed a unitary dopamine system, which largely ignores the distinct functional differences between mesocortical dopamine system and nigrostriatal dopamine system. PURPOSE: The author's goal was to develop a pathophysiological model for ADHD with greater explanotory power than dopaminergic hypofunction hypothesis in prefronal circuitry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published clinical findings on ADHD were integrated with data from genetic, pharmacological, neuroimaging studies in human and animals. RESULTS: Molecular genetic studies suggest that three genes may increase the susceptibility to ADHD. The three candidate genes associated with ADHD are each involved in dopaminergic function, and this consistent with the neurobiologic studies implicating catecholamines in the etiology of ADHD. Pharmacological data also provide compelling support for dopamine and noradrenergic hypothesis of ADHD. Neuroimaging studies lend substantial support for the hypothesis that right-sided abnormalities of prefrontal-basal ganglia circuit would be found in ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: The present hypothesis takes advantage of the major differences between the two pertinent dopamine systems. Mesocortical dopamine system, which largely lacks inhibitory autoreceptors, is ideally positioned to regulate cortical inputs, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio for biologically valued signals. In this circuit, therapeutic doses of stimulants are hypothesized to increase postsynaptic dopamine effects and enhance executive functions. By contrast, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in ADHD are hypothesized to be associated with relative overactivity of nigrostriatal circuit. This nigrostriatal circuit is tightly regulated by inhibitory autoreceptoors as well as by long distance feedback from the cortex, and slow diffusion of therapeutic doses of stimulant via oral administration is hypothesized to produce a net inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission and improves hyperactivity.
Original Articles
Design of a New Applicator for High-Dose Rate Vaginal Brachytherapy.
Sei One Shin
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):123-128.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.123
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to develop a new vaginal applicator(Shin's Applicator) for 2-channel high-dose rate vaginal brachytherapy to evaluate uniformity of surface dose, and to present 3-dimensional dose distribution of the applicator. METHODS: Shin's Applicator was inexpensively constructed using human soft tissue equivalent acrylic bar. We evaluated dose uniformity along the applicator surface using film densitometer and performed vaginal intracavitary brachytherapy after insertion of the applicator using HDR brachytherapy planning software and brachytherapy unit(Ralstron-20B). RESULTS: Shin's Applicator allows improved dose distribution than the existing 1-channel cylinder and achieves diminished urinary bladder and rectal dose by 20%. CONCLUSIONS: From the above results, it can be concluded that Shin's Applicator may be an improved form of a vaginal applicator. Furthermore, it can be suggested that this applicator has an advantage, for it prevents vaginal stenosis after radiation therapy and can be used as a disposable vaginal dilator. Further follow up examination with radiological study may be helpful to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of this applicator.
Comparison of the Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test(RNST) Findings Between in Upper and Lower Extremity Muscles in Myasthenia Gravis.
Yun Seuk Jung, Jun Lee, Se Jin Lee, Jung Sang Hah, Wook Nyeon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):129-136.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.129
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivity of the Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test (RNST) between the upper and lower extremity muscles in myasthenia gravis(MG) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 20 normal persons(control group) and 10 MG patients(MG group). Using Stalberg's method. RNST was systemically performed in orbicularis oculi muscle. upper extremity muscles(flexor carpi ulnaris. abductor digiti quinti), and lower extremity muscles(tibialis anterior. extensor digitorum brevis. vastus medialis). RESULTS: There were statistical differences of decremental response(mean+/-SD) in orbicularis oculi and upper extremity muscles between the control and MG groups(p<0.05 or p<0.01). However, there was no statistical difference of decremental response(mean+/-SD) to RNST in lower extremity muscles between the control and MG groups. There were highersensitivity in orbicularis oculi and upper extremity muscles than lower extremity muscles. Although positive reponse were detected in the lower extremity muscles, the positive response rates of lower extremity muscles were lower than o.oculi and upper extremity muscles. CONCLUSIONS: When the response rates of RNST in facial and upper extremity muscles are normal, may not be required RNST in lower extremity muscles.
The Role of Radiotherapy in Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Jong Ryul Eun, Kyo Won Choi, Heon Ju Lee, Mung Se Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):137-145.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.137
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Hepatocellular carcinomal(HCC) has been considered to be relatively radioresistant. The role of radiotherapy(RT) in the treatment of HCC is controversial. But RT has a role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma as a single or combination modalities. The effect of radiotherapy on HCC was evaluated. Patients and METHODS: From January 1984 through January 2000, a total of 18 patients with unresectable HCC underwent radiotherapy alone or in conjunction with transarterial embolization(TAE). We reviewed the medical ecords of patients treated with RT and measured the tumor size using measured the tumor size using planimetry method. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate. RESULTS: The RT patients were 15 men and 3 women. The mean age was 51 years. four(22.2%) of them were accompanied with ascites. Eleven(61.1%) of them were accompanied with liver cirrhosis and their functions were 6, 3, 2 in each Child-Pugh A, B, C, respectively. A partial response(PR) was observed in 2 patients(11.1%), minimal response(MR) in 4 patients (22.2%) and no change(NC), in 11 patients(61.1%), whereas progressive disease(PD) was seen in 1 patients(6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the radiotherapy in HCC did not improve the survival rate. it decreased the tmor size. Radiotherapy strengthens the therapeutic efficacy when combined with TAE, but more studies are needed.
Imaging Feature of Radiation Induced Lung Disease.
Jae Gyo Lee, Byeung Hak Rho, Jae Chun Chang, Mung Se Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):146-154.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.146
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
AND PURPOSE: Radioopaque lesions are commonly seen in patients who received thoracic radiotherapy for various kinds of thoracic neoplasm, But therir exact diagnos are sometimes uncertain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined simple chest radiograph and computed tomogram(CT) of 69 patients who received thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer and were follow up at least 6 months in Yeungnam University Medical Center. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients. thirty-eight patients showed radioopaque lesions in their chest radiographs except radiation fibrosis; radiation pneumonitis was witnessed in 24 patients. infectious pneumonia in 8 patients, and recurrence in 6 patients. In radiateionpneumonitis patients, the pneumonitis occurred usually between 50 to 130 days after receiving radiation therapy, and interval between pneumonitis and fibrosis is 21 to 104 days. Simple chest radiographs of radiation pneumonitis(24 patients) represented ground glass opacities or consolidation in 4 cases(type I, 17%), reticular of reticulonodular opacities in 10 cases(type II, 42%), irregular patichy consolidations in 2 cases( type III, 8%), and consolidation with fibrosis in 8 cases(type IV, 33%), CT represent ground glass opacities or consolidation in 5 cases(type I, 29%), irregular nodular opacities in 3 cases(type II, 19%), irregular opacity beyond radiation fields in 3 cases(type III, 18%), and consolidation with fibrosis in 6 cased(typeIV, 35%). The CT of four patients who represented type II on simple chest radiographs reveal type I and III, and CT of two patients with clinical symptoms who had no abnormal finding on simple radiograph revealed type I. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, computed tomogram is superior to the simple radiograph when trying to understand the pathologic process of radiation pneumonitis and provide confidence in the diagnosis of radiation induced lung disease.
Case Reports
A Case of Nonfunctioning Paraganglioma of the Posterior Mediastinum.
Young Chul Mun, Sung Keun Yu, Hye Jung Park, Kyeong Cheol Shin, Choong Ki Lee, Jin Hong Chung, Kwan Ho Lee, Mee Jin Kim, Jung Cheul Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):155-160.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.155
  • 1,548 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Paraganglioma is a tumor from the extra adrenal paraganglion system and is rarely observed in the mediastinum. The authors experienced a case of nonfunctioning paraganglioma of the posterior mediastinum. The patient was 34-years-old male in whom abnormal mass lesion was nites in chest radiograph with hemoptysis. His blood pressure and serologic examination were within normal range upon admission to our hospital. Chest CT revealed a tumor in the left lower lobe. Diagnostic thoracoscopy was performed and diagnosed a posterior mediastinal mass. Surgical resection was them performed. Posterior mediastinal mass was removed successfully and histological examination of the surgical specimen diagnosed paraganglioma. He received radiotherapy after surgery and was followed up. Related literature are reviewed.
Symptomatic Sacroiliitis in Female Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Ki Do Park, Young Hun Hong, Sung Dong Kim, Dong Hwan Ryu, Coong Ki Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(2):161-164.   Published online December 31, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.2.161
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a case of 17-year-old female with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus Who developed symptomatic unilateral sacroiliitis. She had neither HLA-DR3 nir B27 antigens. Though sacroiliitis have been reported in mail SLE patient. it has been rarely reported in female patients. The rare coexistence of SLE and sacroiliitis. described in this case. may not be determined soley by genetic factors; sacroiliitis may be just an infrequent manifestation of SLE.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science