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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Jun Sakong 11 Articles
Association Analyses of beta3AR Trp64Arg and UCP-2 -866G/A Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index in Korean.
Hong Soo Jung, Joo Hyun Lee, Jun Sakong, Sung Wook Bae, Jung Hye Kim, Jae Ryong Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):252-261.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2.252
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in Western society as well as in Korea. Obesity results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an attempt to investigate the association of obesity with its candidate genes, beta3 adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), we analyzed polymorphisms of beta3AR Trp64Arg and UCP2 -866G/A by PCR-RFLP analysis and the obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose concentration, and plasma lipid profiles in 750 subjects. RESULTS: The Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3AR gene was not statistically associated with the BMI. The UCP2 -866G/A polymorphism was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese subjects (P<0.05). However, the UCP2 -866A/A polymorphism was higher in the non-obese subjects. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the UCP2 -866G/A polymorphism might be more useful for the prediction of obesity and obesity-associated diseases in Korean patients than the beta3AR Trp64Arg polymorphism.

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  • Clinical Course of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents
    Na-Ri Kang, Young-Sook Kwack
    Journal of korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2012; 23(1): 3.     CrossRef
Knowledge and Attitude about AIDS among Teachers in Taegu City.
Tae Yoon Hwang, Jun Sakong, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):32-45.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.32
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The AIDS is a serious health problem worldwide today and also in Korea. Increasing knowledge and modification of behavior by health education is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) prevention strategies. And school health education is an important part of health education. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about AIDS in teachers and professors in Taegu City and to provide the basic data for school health education. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 1,124 teachers and professors from April to June 1992. Indeed, the majority of the teachers and professors have a lot of knowledges about AIDS, but many of them also have misconceptions. The level of knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with attitude toward infected students. The sources of knowledge about AIDS were mainly TV, newspapers and magazines, but a few of the subjects obtained their knowledge from health education programs. This study suggest., that the reinforcement of health education for the teachers, professors and students be needed to provide the accurate knowledge on AIDS and adequate knowledge sources and materials for school health education on AIDS should be developed.
Lead level in hair of elementary school children in urban and rural areas.
Yung Woo Byun, Jun Sakong, Chang Yoon Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):103-113.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.103
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This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using the lead level in the hair of children as a screening test for lead intoxication of children and as an indicator for environmental pollution. Lead concentration of hair was measured for 268 seven to nine-year-old elementary school children in Taegu city (147 children) and Gampo. town(121 children). The lead level in hair was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was obtained for all children : sex, age, father's occupation and smoking habits, kinds of hair cleaner, fingernail biting habits, and status of the child's hands and clothing. The mean lead level in hair was 8.7+/-2-9 microg/g in the urban area and 7.7+/-2.2 pg/g in the rural area. There were significant differences between two groups(p(0.01). The difference of lead levels in hair measured by cleanliness of the child's hands (clean : 7.4+/- 2.7 pg/g, dirty : 8.2+/- 2.6 pg/g) and child's clothing(clean : 8.0+/- 2.5 microg/g, dirty : 9.3+/- 2.6 microg/g) were statistically significant, but other factors were not significant. In multiple regression analysis, difference of residency and age were significant variables for lead level in the hair of children. These findings suggest that measurement of lead level in the hair is a useful method for the screening of the lead intoxication of children and monitoring environmental conditions.
Association between cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails.
Jung Kil Rhee, Jong Hak Chung, Jun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Chang Yoon Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Koing Bo Kwon
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):29-43.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.29
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A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails. Seventy three patients and two hundreds eighty three controls were selected at the Yeungnam University Hospital between May and September in 1991. The selected cases were patients who had been hospitalized for stomach or colon cancer at the Department of General Surgery. The controls were people who visited to check physical examination at the Automated Mediscreening Center. The selenium concentration in whole blood and toenails were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was ascertained for all cancer patients and controls: sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, and history of smoking and drinking. The mean selenium concentration in blood and toenail for all cancer patients were 143.6±10.8 µg/l and 1.04±0.62 µg/g and for the controls. 167.0±14.5 µg/l and 1.15±0.55 µg/g, respectively. The difference in blood and toenail selenium concentrations of the two cancer sites was not statistically significant. Metastasis did not influence the concentration of selenium in blood and toenails. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the blood selenium concentration (aOR: 0.888, 95% CI: 0.860-0.918), age, BMI and total serum cholesterol were significant variables for risk of cancer, but the selenium concentration in toenail was not shown to be a significant variable in this regression analysis. The coefficient for blood selenium concentration adjusted for age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, body mass index and smoking was -0.1184 (p<0.01). These findings suggest that low selenium concentration is associated with gastrointestinal cancers. Further epidemiologic studies including important variables such as other antioxidant micronutrients will be necessary.

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  • Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels
    Jae Hyo Ji, Dong Gue Shin, Yujin Kwon, Dong Hui Cho, Kyung Bok Lee, Sang Soo Park, Jin Yoon
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2012; 12(4): 217.     CrossRef
Morbidity pattern of residents in urban poor area by health screening.
Chang Yoon Kim, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):150-157.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.150
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The purpose of this study was to assess the morbidity pattern of urban residents in the poor area by health screening for the community diagnosis. The items of health screening were history taking and physical examination by medical doctor and hearing test, check blood pressure, test for hematocrit, liver function (sGOT, sGPT), urine sugar and protein, and chest X-ray. The examinee in health screening were 437 persons and they occupied 16.9% of total residents in the poor area. Male examinee were 129 persons (9.9% of total residents) and female examinee were 308 persons (23.9% of total residents). Age group of above sixty years old, 42.0% of total residents in the poor area were participated, but only 5.9% were participated in age group of 10 to 19 years old. Among the 437 examinee, 191 persons (43.7%) had one or more abnormal findings in health screening. In male 38.7% had abnormal findings, and somewhat lower than that of female (45.8%). Age group of above sixty years had most high rate of abnormal findings (69.8%), in contrast to age group of 10 to 19 years old (10.9%). Diseases of the digestive system was the most common and which occupies 23.7% of total abnormal findings. And diseases of the circulatory system occupied 19.7%. Low hematocrit (14.6% of total participants of 437 persons) occupies the most common abnormal findings for screening test (hematocrit, blood pressure, hearing test, sGOT/sGPT, urine protein and urine sugar, chest X-ray) and high blood pressure (10.1%) occupied second, third; hearing impairment (5.5%), fourth; abnormal liver function (4.1%), fifth; sugar in urine (2.3%), sixth; protein in urine (1.4%) and lastly abnormal chest X-ray (0.9%). The positive rate of abnormal findings in health screening was very high compared with morbidity rate by health interview. It is supposed that some portion of this high rate is by selection bias in examinee in health screening specially high participating rate in older age, and the other portion is due to the low socioeconomic status and bad environment of the residents of the poor area. These findings will be good information for the research and development of health care system in the urban poor area.
Morbidity pattern and medical care utilization behavior of residents in urban poor area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Jun Sakong, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(1):107-126.   Published online June 30, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.1.107
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The purpose of the study was to assess the morbidity pattern and the medical care utilization behavior of urban residents in the poor area. The study population included 2,591 family members of 677 households in the poor area of Daemyong 8 Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 2,686 family members of 688 households, near the poor area in the same Dong, were interviewed as a control group. On this study the household interview method was applied. Well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households or housewives for general information, morbidity condition, and medical care utilization with a structured questionnaire. Individuals were interviewed from 1 to 30 December 1988. The major results were summarized as follow: The proportion of the people below 5 years of age was 4.2% of the total study population and 5.5% were above 65 years of age in the poor area. This was slightly higher than in the control area. The average monthly income of a household in the poor area was 403,000 won versus 529,000 won in the control area. Fifty-eight percent of the residents in the poor area and sixty-one percent in the control area were medical security beneficiaries, but the proportion of medical aid beneficiaries was 7.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area. The 15-day period morbidity rate of acute illnesses was 57.1 per 1,000 in the poor area and 24.2 per 1,000 in the control area. Respiratory disease is the most common acute illness in both areas. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with acute illnesses in the poor area. Among them 58.1% visited pharmacy initially while 38.4% of the patients in the control area visited a clinic. Among persons with illnesses during the 15 days, 8.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 3.5 days in the poor area and 3.3 days in the control area. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, The pharmacy in the poor area and the clinic in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital was 'regular customers' in the poor area and 'geographical accessibility' in the control area. The one year period morbidity rate of chronic illness in the poor area was 83.0 per 1,000 population and 28.0 per 1,000 in the control area. Disease of nervous system was the most common chronic illness in the poor area while cardiovascular disease in male and gastrointestinal disease in female were most prevalent in the control area. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with chronic illnesses in the poor area. Among them 24.2% visited the pharmacy initially while 34.7% of the patients in the control area visited the out-patient department of the hospital within a 15-day period. Among the patients with chronic illnesses 34.9% in the poor area and 16.0% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 9.2 days in the poor area and 9.9 days in the control area within a 15-day period. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, the pharmacy in the poor area and the hospital in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital, clinic, health center or pharmacy in the poor area was 'geographical accessibility' while the reason for visiting herb clinic was 'good result' and 'reputation' in both areas.
A study on physical growth of primary school student in the rural area.
Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(1):51-60.   Published online June 30, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.1.51
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In order to assess the physical growth of primary school student in the rural area, body height, weight, chest circumference and sitting height of 923 students (469 males, 454 females) in the town of Angang, Kyungpook province, Korea, were measured from April to May, 1988. The most growth age of boy height was 10-11 years old in both sex and the growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of body weight was 10-11 years old and growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of chest circumference was 10-11 years old in female, whereupon female outgrows male by contrast with male's slow and linear growth. The most rapid growth age of sitting height was 10-11 years old and the growth curves were crossed at 9-10 years old. The Rother index was 1.17-1.30 in male, 1.16-1.29 in female, and male's index was in general superior to female's.
The Effect of Interpregnancy Interval on Birth Weight.
Kwang Yeul Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):173-181.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.173
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The effect of interpregnancy interval on birthweight of the subsequent child was investigated for the 1,347 women of 25 to 40yearsold age who visited OBGY and Pediatric department of the general hospital in Taegu city. Questions in designed questionnaire were asked by student interviewers who were trained in nursing school. Mean birth weight by interpregnancy intervals were compared by intervals of 6 months. Mean birth weight increased from 3,250 grams for intervals of 6 months to 3,357 grams for intervals of 25-30 months, but the difference was not statistically significant (=0.47). Correlations between the continuous variables which were suspected as confounders and interpregnancy interval and birth weight were investigated. The coefficient of correlation between maternal age and interpregnancy interval was 0.39, between gestational period and birth weight 0.30 and between prepregnancy weight and birth weight 0.16 and between birth weight of first baby and birth weight (of second baby) 0.44. But maternal age, gestational period and prepregnancy weight were not considered as confounder, because they were not correlated simultaneously with birth interval and birth weight. Associations between the discrete variables which were suspected as confounders, and interpregnancy interval were investigated by Chi-square test. Associations between interpregancy interval and educational level of mothers, types of husband's occupation, types of medical security, sex were not significant (P-values were 0.59, 0.75, 0.75, 0.82 respectively), so we did not considered these variables as confounding variables. In multiple regression analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first baby, gestational analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first bay, gestational period, sex of neonate and prepregnancy body weight of mother. Of the 1,347 births, the rate of low birth weight was 2% (27 birth). The rate for interpregnancy interval 7-12months was highest as 3.6% and that for 13-18 months was lowest as 0.6%, but there was no regular tendency related with interpregnancy interval.
Comparison Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Motivation Between Blood Donors and Non-donors.
Jae Hack Shin, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung, Dal Hyo Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):159-172.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.159
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This study was conducted to compare the date on knowledge, attitude and motivation toward blood donation between donors and non-donors. The study population included 622 donors and 322 non-donors who visited the mobile blood donation car of Taegu Red Cross Blood Center and participated the group appointed blood donation campaign managed by the center from March 1 to March 31, 1989. The donors and non-donors were questioned above mentioned items with a formulated questionnaire. Among the general characteristics of the subjects in the study, male predominance (84.1% in donors and 73.6% in non-donors) in young age group (16-24 years) was the outstanding feature. As a medium of information about blood donation, “television” was playing a dominant role (donors; 75.2%, non-donors; 78.9%), while “magazine” played more important roles among donors. Of the donors, 70.6% and of the non-donors, 58.1 replied that they had ever been induced to donate blood (p<0.01). Major inducers were friend and personnel of mobile blood donation vehicle. On the measuring of knowledge level, the average rates of correct answer was higher in donors (62.6%) than in non-donors (54.1%) (p<0.01). Higher the education level was presented, higher the knowledge level (p<0.05). There have been noticeable difference between donors and non-donors in blood replying the questionnaire set to measure their attitude toward blood donation, especially in the items such as “impression toward blood”, “selection of transfusion blood source” and “view on the situation of blood shortage.” The major motivation toward blood donation of the groups were “possible future need” and “altruism or humanitarian interest”. The major reasons for not donation blood in both groups were “fear of the needle” and “dread to visit to mobile car or center”.

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  • Association between Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Blood Donation in University Students
    Jung-Hyun Kim, Joong-Soo Yoon
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2015; 15(10): 316.     CrossRef
Lead in Maternal Blood and Cord Blood.
Dong Soo Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):147-157.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.147
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To investigate the blood lead concentration, their interrelation, correlation factor and influence on pregnant women and newborn, lead concentration in the maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were determined. Samples were collected from 130 mothers who were living in the Taegu City, during March, 1989. Blood lead concentration was estimated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (IL. 551) equipped with Flameless Furnace Atomizer (IL. 665). The mean lead concentration of maternal and cord blood were 17.47±7.92 µg/dl, 15.31±7.98 µg/dl, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the lead concentration of maternal and cord blood, r=0.663, Y=0.667X+3.646. No significant correlation was observed between previous spontaneous abortion and obstetric complication of mother and maternal blood lead concentration. Similarly, no significant correlation was observed between the sex, gestational age of neonate and cord blood lead concentration. But the birth weight of neonate had some negative correlation with cord blood lead concentration. The blood lead concentration of mother who had engaged in manufactures were higher than others and the longer working years were, the higher blood lead concentration were. Significant correlation was observed between husband's occupational exposure to lead and maternal blood lead concentration.
Isolation of the Legionella Species from Specimens of Cooling Tower Water.
Jong Hak Chung, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Bhum Kim, Jun Sakong
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):77-84.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.77
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The principal mode of the transmission of Legionnaires disease is an inhalation of the cooling tower water droplets in which Legionellae exist. As a central cooling system is popularized in many public buildings and large buildings nowadays, the number of cooling towers in rapidly increasing. Therefore the possibility of an outbreak of Legionnaires disease is likely increased. To determine the presence of Legionella in cooling tower water as the first step for the prevention of Legionnaires disease, 48 samples of cooling tower water were taken from 24 buildings in Taegu city in July and September 1987. Three samples out of 24 water samples in September yielded Legionella but it was not isolated in the samples of July. Isolated 3 Legionellas were identified as Legionella peumophila. It seems that Legionella from the cooling tower will be isolated more frequently in late summer than early because central cooling system is stopped operation during winter season which in cool. As based on our survey, Legionnaires disease can occur in Taegu city and if it happens it is most likely due to L. pneumophila.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science