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Jong Hak Chung 23 Articles
Health of Apartment Guards and Associated Factors.
Sang Kyu Kim, Joon Sakong, Jong Hak Chung, Chi Ho Kim, Sang Keun Bae, Yun Jin Jang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1999;16(2):357-363.   Published online December 31, 1999
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1999.16.2.357
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this investigation was to study the health status of apartment guards and associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This investigation was conducted for 1 month starting from August, 1997. Study population in this cross-sectional survey consisted of 182 guards of apartments located throughout the district of Taegu. Each subject completed a questionnaire about his general characteristics, health behaviors, job descriptions, subjective GIT symptoms and somatization and depression using Symptom Checklist-90-Reversion (SCL-90-R) by self administrated questionnaire and personal interview). RESULTS: Study subjects had one or more GIT symptoms(53.3%), somatization symptoms(83.5%) and depression symptoms(79.7%). The mean scores of GIT, somatization and depression symptoms were not different among the age groups and based on marital status, respectively, but, significantly different by education level(p<0.05). The mean scores of GIT, somatization and depression symptoms were not different among the age groups and hased on marital status, respectively, but, significantly different by regular diet and by the subject's health status(p<0.05). The mean scores of GIT, somatization and depression symptoms were not different by duration of shift work, by job tenure and by the number of managed houses but, those of somatization and depression symptoms were significantly different by level of job satisfaction(p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The health statuses of guards at apartments were different from other shift workers because of health worker effects and characteristics of their jobs.

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  • The effect of long working hours on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease; A case‐crossover study
    Kyong‐sok Shin, Yun kyung Chung, Young‐Jun Kwon, Jun‐Seok Son, Se‐hoon Lee
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2017; 60(9): 753.     CrossRef
  • Effects of sleep quality and occupational stress on health-related quality of life among a university's security workers
    Gun Woo Park, Su-Jin Goh, Dong Ha Kim, Hye Lim Kim, Jin Kwan Park, Soo-Young Yu, Du Young Jeong, Jin-Hee Chun, Soon-Young Hwang, Sung-Il Cho
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(3): 73.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factor Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Symptoms for Guards
    Kyung-Sun Lee, In-Seok Lee, Hyun-Joo Kim, KyungHee Jung-Choi, Jin-Wook Bahk, Myung-Chul Jung
    Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea.2011; 30(3): 419.     CrossRef
Sick building syndrome in 130 underground workers.
Ree Joo, Joon Sakong, Jong Hak Chung, Sang Whan Park, Dong Hee Kim, Dong Min Kim, Eun Kyong Choi, Hyun Geon Cho
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1998;15(2):325-339.   Published online December 31, 1998
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1998.15.2.325
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between sick building syndrome(SBS) and the environmental factors affecting SBS on 130 underground workers and 60 controls. The study consisted of 1) a review of environmental condition 2) measurement of temperature, O2, CO2, CO, and formaldehyde and 3) a questionnaire survey of symptom prevalence and perception of environmental conditions using Indoor Air Quality questionnaire by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Bronchitis and dust allergy were more prevalent in underground workers significantly(p<0.05). Among the 18 symptoms related to the indoor air pollution, the experience rate of dry, itching or irritated eyes, sore or dry throat, chest tightness, tired or strained eyes and dry or itchy skin symptom is significantly different between the underground workers and controls. The diagnostic criteria of SBS was defined as at least one symptom is experienced 1-3 times a week during the last 1 month among 18 indoor air pollution related symptoms which can be relieved by moving out of the underground. Applying the criteria, the mean symptom score was significant higher in underground workers than controls significantly(p<0.05). These results indicated that underground workers are under inappropriate ergonomic and physical condition and inadequate ventilation. Their experience rate of symptoms related to indoor air pollution and prevalence of SBS was significantly higher than controls. To reduce the prevalence of SBS in underground workers, the surveillance system of indoor air quality, restriction of using fuel in underground and legislative regulations for the environment are needed to establish a better indoor air quality. Early detection, treatment and prevention of SBS through medical attention is also needed.

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  • Investigation on the impacts of natural lighting on occupants' wayfinding behavior during emergency evacuation in underground space
    Dachuan Wang, Shuang Liang, Binbin Chen, Cailing Wu
    Energy and Buildings.2022; 255: 111613.     CrossRef
  • Review of the potential health effects of light and environmental exposures in underground workplaces
    Ei Ei Khaing Nang, Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Pawel Posadzki, Ushashree Divakar, Nanthini Visvalingam, Nuraini Nazeha, Gerard Dunleavy, George I. Christopoulos, Chee-Kiong Soh, Krister Jarbrink, Michael Soljak, Josip Car
    Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology.2019; 84: 201.     CrossRef
Blood Lead and ZPP Concentrations of Underground Parking Lot Workers.
Tae Heum Jung, Chang Yoon Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1998;15(2):224-236.   Published online December 31, 1998
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1998.15.2.224
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A study was conducted to investigate the blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) concentrations of the underground parking lot workers who exposed to vehicular exhaust aerosols which contained lead. The blood samples were collected from 25 study subjects of underground parking lot and from 33 controls in Taegu, from July to October, 1997. And also the related factors to the blood lead and ZPP concentrations were investigated. Blood lead concentration and ZPP concentration were measured by flameless furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL.551) and hemetofluorometer, respectively. The mean blood lead concentrations of study subjects and controls were 23.10+/-20.77microgram/dl and 12.99+/-12.71microgram/dl, respectively(p<0.05), and the mean blood ZPP concentrations of study subjects and controls were 40.72+/-9.46microgram/dl and 38.21+/-10.97microgram/dl, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between the blood lead concentration of the study subjects and their job duration and between blood ZPP concentration of the study subjects and their job duration. There were no statistically significant differences in the blood lead concentration and the blood ZPP concentration of smokers and nonsmokers. In multiple regression analysis on blood lead concentration of the study subjects and controls, occupation was a only significant dependent variable. In case of bood ZPP concentration, age was a only significant dependent variable in the study subjects and controls.
Neurobehavioral Performance Test of Workers Exposed to Mixed Organic Solvents.
Chang Yoon Kim, Joon Sakong, Jong Hak Chung, Ree Joo, Man Joong Jeon, Nag Jung Sung, Sang Kyu Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1997;14(2):314-328.   Published online December 31, 1997
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1997.14.2.314
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to low-dose solvent on neurobehavioral performance of 48 male workers exposed to organic solvents. A control group of 50 workers was selected from same factories. Each worker completed a medical and occupational questionnaire and four tests of Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery. These included Benton visual retention test, digit symbol, digit span, and pursuit aiming. Comparison of mean performance showed a significantly poorer performance on digit symbol, digit span, and pursuit aiming. In univariate analysis, age contributed to poor performance on Benton visual retention test and educational level was found to reduce the performance on symbol digit in both groups. Amount of alcohol intake was found to reduce the performance on digit symbol and smoking appeared to slow pursuit aiming in the exposure group. In multiple regression analysis, controlling for age, educational level, alcohol, and smoking, solvent exposure was found to be associated with performance of digit span, and number of correct dot of pursuit aiming. Age on Benton visual retention, educational level on digit symbol, and smoking on pursuit aiming were found to be a significant factors on each test items. This study suggest that short-term memory, and perception can be affected easily by chronic exposure of organic solvents which air concentration level were under the Threshold Limit Value.

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  • An aggravated return-to-work case of organic solvent induced chronic toxic encephalopathy
    Sangyun Seo, Jungwon Kim
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea
    Kyeong-Sook Choi, Seong-Kyu Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2010; 25(Suppl): S87.     CrossRef
Knowledge and Attitude about AIDS among Teachers in Taegu City.
Tae Yoon Hwang, Jun Sakong, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):32-45.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.32
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The AIDS is a serious health problem worldwide today and also in Korea. Increasing knowledge and modification of behavior by health education is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) prevention strategies. And school health education is an important part of health education. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about AIDS in teachers and professors in Taegu City and to provide the basic data for school health education. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 1,124 teachers and professors from April to June 1992. Indeed, the majority of the teachers and professors have a lot of knowledges about AIDS, but many of them also have misconceptions. The level of knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with attitude toward infected students. The sources of knowledge about AIDS were mainly TV, newspapers and magazines, but a few of the subjects obtained their knowledge from health education programs. This study suggest., that the reinforcement of health education for the teachers, professors and students be needed to provide the accurate knowledge on AIDS and adequate knowledge sources and materials for school health education on AIDS should be developed.
Lead level in hair of elementary school children in urban and rural areas.
Yung Woo Byun, Jun Sakong, Chang Yoon Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):103-113.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.103
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using the lead level in the hair of children as a screening test for lead intoxication of children and as an indicator for environmental pollution. Lead concentration of hair was measured for 268 seven to nine-year-old elementary school children in Taegu city (147 children) and Gampo. town(121 children). The lead level in hair was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was obtained for all children : sex, age, father's occupation and smoking habits, kinds of hair cleaner, fingernail biting habits, and status of the child's hands and clothing. The mean lead level in hair was 8.7+/-2-9 microg/g in the urban area and 7.7+/-2.2 pg/g in the rural area. There were significant differences between two groups(p(0.01). The difference of lead levels in hair measured by cleanliness of the child's hands (clean : 7.4+/- 2.7 pg/g, dirty : 8.2+/- 2.6 pg/g) and child's clothing(clean : 8.0+/- 2.5 microg/g, dirty : 9.3+/- 2.6 microg/g) were statistically significant, but other factors were not significant. In multiple regression analysis, difference of residency and age were significant variables for lead level in the hair of children. These findings suggest that measurement of lead level in the hair is a useful method for the screening of the lead intoxication of children and monitoring environmental conditions.
Medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area.
In Soo Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):91-102.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.91
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to assess medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area. The study population included 377 family members of 85 households in the poor area of Daemyung 8-Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 442 family members of 96 households in a control area. The data was collected through self-administered q'iestionnaires completed by housewives. The survey was conducted. from , March 1 to May 31; 1992. The mean age was 31. 1 years in the poor area and 37. 1 years in the control area. The average number of households per house was 4.5 in the poor area and 4.5 in the control area. The frequency of medical care utilization per household in a one month period was 4.6 in the poor area and 4.3 in the control area. The average number of days of utilization was 12.9 in the poor area and 12.5 in the control area. The averge monthly income of a househlod in the poor area was 848,600 Won compared to the control area's 1,752,300 Won. The average monthly consumption expenditure of a household in the poor area was 568,800 Won and that in the control area 1,238,400 Won. The average medical care monthly expenditure per household was 34,500 Won in the poor area and 58,400 Won in the control area. The proportion of the medical care expenditure to monthly income and to monthly consumption expenditure was 4.1% and 6.1% respectively in the poor area, and 3.3% and 4.7%, respectively in the control area. The premium of medical insurance was 1.5% in both areas. The proportion of cost for drug was 57.4%, for medical appliance was 1.2%, and for medical treatment was 41.1% in the poor area and in the control area 52.4%, 1.9%, 45.7%, respectively. The highest proportion of medical care expenditures in the poor area was herb clinic utilization (36.9%). while hospital and clinic (37.8%) was the highest proportion in the control area. Mean medical care expenditure per visit was 7,400 Won in the poor area and 12,600 Won in the control area. Mean medical care expinditure per day was 2,800 Won in the poor area and 6.300 Won in the control area.
Association between cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails.
Jung Kil Rhee, Jong Hak Chung, Jun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Chang Yoon Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Koing Bo Kwon
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):29-43.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails. Seventy three patients and two hundreds eighty three controls were selected at the Yeungnam University Hospital between May and September in 1991. The selected cases were patients who had been hospitalized for stomach or colon cancer at the Department of General Surgery. The controls were people who visited to check physical examination at the Automated Mediscreening Center. The selenium concentration in whole blood and toenails were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was ascertained for all cancer patients and controls: sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, and history of smoking and drinking. The mean selenium concentration in blood and toenail for all cancer patients were 143.6±10.8 µg/l and 1.04±0.62 µg/g and for the controls. 167.0±14.5 µg/l and 1.15±0.55 µg/g, respectively. The difference in blood and toenail selenium concentrations of the two cancer sites was not statistically significant. Metastasis did not influence the concentration of selenium in blood and toenails. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the blood selenium concentration (aOR: 0.888, 95% CI: 0.860-0.918), age, BMI and total serum cholesterol were significant variables for risk of cancer, but the selenium concentration in toenail was not shown to be a significant variable in this regression analysis. The coefficient for blood selenium concentration adjusted for age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, body mass index and smoking was -0.1184 (p<0.01). These findings suggest that low selenium concentration is associated with gastrointestinal cancers. Further epidemiologic studies including important variables such as other antioxidant micronutrients will be necessary.

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  • Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels
    Jae Hyo Ji, Dong Gue Shin, Yujin Kwon, Dong Hui Cho, Kyung Bok Lee, Sang Soo Park, Jin Yoon
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2012; 12(4): 217.     CrossRef
Comparison of medical care utilization patterns between beneficiaries of medical aid and medical insurance.
Bok Youn Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):185-201.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.185
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A household survey was conducted to compare the patterns of morbidity and medical care utilization between medical aid beneficiaries and medical insurance beneficiaries. The study population included 285 medical aid beneficiaries that were completely surveyed and 386 medical insurance beneficiaries selected by simple random sampling from a Dong (Township) in Taegu. Well-trained surveyors mainly interviewed housewives with a structured questionnaire. The morbidity rates of acute illness during the 15-day period, were 63 per 1,000 medical aid beneficiaries and 62 per 1,000 medical insurance beneficiaries. The rates for chronic illness were 123 per 1,000 medical beneficiaries and 73 per 1,000 medical insurance beneficiaries. The most common type of acute illness in medical aid and medical insurance beneficiaries was respiratory disease in medical aid beneficiaries, musculoskeletal disease was most common, but in medical insurance beneficiaries, gastrointestinal disease was most common. The mean duration of acute illness of medical aid beneficiaries was 3.8 days and that of medical insurance beneficiaries was 6.8 days. During the one year period, mean duration of medical aid beneficiaries chronic illnesses was 11.5 months which was almost twice as long compared to medical insurance beneficiaries. Pharmacy was most preferable facility among the acute illness patient in medical aid beneficiaries, but acute cases of medical insurance beneficiaries visited the clinic most commonly. Chronic cases of both groups visited the clinic most frequently. There were some findings suggesting that much unmet need existed among the medical aid beneficiaries. In acute cases, the average number of days of medical aid users utilized medical facilities was less than medical insurance users. On the other hand, the length of medical care utilization of chronic cases was reversed. Geographical accessibility was the most important factors in utilization of medical facilities. Almost half of the study population answered the questions about source of funds on medical security correctly. Most respondents considered that the objective of medical security was affordability. The chief complaint on hospital utilization was the complicated administrative procedures. These findings suggest that there were some problems in the medical aid system, especially in the referral system.
Morbidity pattern of residents in urban poor area by health screening.
Chang Yoon Kim, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):150-157.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.150
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to assess the morbidity pattern of urban residents in the poor area by health screening for the community diagnosis. The items of health screening were history taking and physical examination by medical doctor and hearing test, check blood pressure, test for hematocrit, liver function (sGOT, sGPT), urine sugar and protein, and chest X-ray. The examinee in health screening were 437 persons and they occupied 16.9% of total residents in the poor area. Male examinee were 129 persons (9.9% of total residents) and female examinee were 308 persons (23.9% of total residents). Age group of above sixty years old, 42.0% of total residents in the poor area were participated, but only 5.9% were participated in age group of 10 to 19 years old. Among the 437 examinee, 191 persons (43.7%) had one or more abnormal findings in health screening. In male 38.7% had abnormal findings, and somewhat lower than that of female (45.8%). Age group of above sixty years had most high rate of abnormal findings (69.8%), in contrast to age group of 10 to 19 years old (10.9%). Diseases of the digestive system was the most common and which occupies 23.7% of total abnormal findings. And diseases of the circulatory system occupied 19.7%. Low hematocrit (14.6% of total participants of 437 persons) occupies the most common abnormal findings for screening test (hematocrit, blood pressure, hearing test, sGOT/sGPT, urine protein and urine sugar, chest X-ray) and high blood pressure (10.1%) occupied second, third; hearing impairment (5.5%), fourth; abnormal liver function (4.1%), fifth; sugar in urine (2.3%), sixth; protein in urine (1.4%) and lastly abnormal chest X-ray (0.9%). The positive rate of abnormal findings in health screening was very high compared with morbidity rate by health interview. It is supposed that some portion of this high rate is by selection bias in examinee in health screening specially high participating rate in older age, and the other portion is due to the low socioeconomic status and bad environment of the residents of the poor area. These findings will be good information for the research and development of health care system in the urban poor area.
Morbidity pattern and medical care utilization behavior of residents in urban poor area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Jun Sakong, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(1):107-126.   Published online June 30, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.1.107
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of the study was to assess the morbidity pattern and the medical care utilization behavior of urban residents in the poor area. The study population included 2,591 family members of 677 households in the poor area of Daemyong 8 Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 2,686 family members of 688 households, near the poor area in the same Dong, were interviewed as a control group. On this study the household interview method was applied. Well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households or housewives for general information, morbidity condition, and medical care utilization with a structured questionnaire. Individuals were interviewed from 1 to 30 December 1988. The major results were summarized as follow: The proportion of the people below 5 years of age was 4.2% of the total study population and 5.5% were above 65 years of age in the poor area. This was slightly higher than in the control area. The average monthly income of a household in the poor area was 403,000 won versus 529,000 won in the control area. Fifty-eight percent of the residents in the poor area and sixty-one percent in the control area were medical security beneficiaries, but the proportion of medical aid beneficiaries was 7.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area. The 15-day period morbidity rate of acute illnesses was 57.1 per 1,000 in the poor area and 24.2 per 1,000 in the control area. Respiratory disease is the most common acute illness in both areas. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with acute illnesses in the poor area. Among them 58.1% visited pharmacy initially while 38.4% of the patients in the control area visited a clinic. Among persons with illnesses during the 15 days, 8.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 3.5 days in the poor area and 3.3 days in the control area. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, The pharmacy in the poor area and the clinic in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital was 'regular customers' in the poor area and 'geographical accessibility' in the control area. The one year period morbidity rate of chronic illness in the poor area was 83.0 per 1,000 population and 28.0 per 1,000 in the control area. Disease of nervous system was the most common chronic illness in the poor area while cardiovascular disease in male and gastrointestinal disease in female were most prevalent in the control area. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with chronic illnesses in the poor area. Among them 24.2% visited the pharmacy initially while 34.7% of the patients in the control area visited the out-patient department of the hospital within a 15-day period. Among the patients with chronic illnesses 34.9% in the poor area and 16.0% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 9.2 days in the poor area and 9.9 days in the control area within a 15-day period. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, the pharmacy in the poor area and the hospital in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital, clinic, health center or pharmacy in the poor area was 'geographical accessibility' while the reason for visiting herb clinic was 'good result' and 'reputation' in both areas.
A study on physical growth of primary school student in the rural area.
Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(1):51-60.   Published online June 30, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.1.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to assess the physical growth of primary school student in the rural area, body height, weight, chest circumference and sitting height of 923 students (469 males, 454 females) in the town of Angang, Kyungpook province, Korea, were measured from April to May, 1988. The most growth age of boy height was 10-11 years old in both sex and the growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of body weight was 10-11 years old and growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of chest circumference was 10-11 years old in female, whereupon female outgrows male by contrast with male's slow and linear growth. The most rapid growth age of sitting height was 10-11 years old and the growth curves were crossed at 9-10 years old. The Rother index was 1.17-1.30 in male, 1.16-1.29 in female, and male's index was in general superior to female's.
The Effect of Interpregnancy Interval on Birth Weight.
Kwang Yeul Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):173-181.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.173
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The effect of interpregnancy interval on birthweight of the subsequent child was investigated for the 1,347 women of 25 to 40yearsold age who visited OBGY and Pediatric department of the general hospital in Taegu city. Questions in designed questionnaire were asked by student interviewers who were trained in nursing school. Mean birth weight by interpregnancy intervals were compared by intervals of 6 months. Mean birth weight increased from 3,250 grams for intervals of 6 months to 3,357 grams for intervals of 25-30 months, but the difference was not statistically significant (=0.47). Correlations between the continuous variables which were suspected as confounders and interpregnancy interval and birth weight were investigated. The coefficient of correlation between maternal age and interpregnancy interval was 0.39, between gestational period and birth weight 0.30 and between prepregnancy weight and birth weight 0.16 and between birth weight of first baby and birth weight (of second baby) 0.44. But maternal age, gestational period and prepregnancy weight were not considered as confounder, because they were not correlated simultaneously with birth interval and birth weight. Associations between the discrete variables which were suspected as confounders, and interpregnancy interval were investigated by Chi-square test. Associations between interpregancy interval and educational level of mothers, types of husband's occupation, types of medical security, sex were not significant (P-values were 0.59, 0.75, 0.75, 0.82 respectively), so we did not considered these variables as confounding variables. In multiple regression analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first baby, gestational analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first bay, gestational period, sex of neonate and prepregnancy body weight of mother. Of the 1,347 births, the rate of low birth weight was 2% (27 birth). The rate for interpregnancy interval 7-12months was highest as 3.6% and that for 13-18 months was lowest as 0.6%, but there was no regular tendency related with interpregnancy interval.
Comparison Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Motivation Between Blood Donors and Non-donors.
Jae Hack Shin, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung, Dal Hyo Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):159-172.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.159
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to compare the date on knowledge, attitude and motivation toward blood donation between donors and non-donors. The study population included 622 donors and 322 non-donors who visited the mobile blood donation car of Taegu Red Cross Blood Center and participated the group appointed blood donation campaign managed by the center from March 1 to March 31, 1989. The donors and non-donors were questioned above mentioned items with a formulated questionnaire. Among the general characteristics of the subjects in the study, male predominance (84.1% in donors and 73.6% in non-donors) in young age group (16-24 years) was the outstanding feature. As a medium of information about blood donation, “television” was playing a dominant role (donors; 75.2%, non-donors; 78.9%), while “magazine” played more important roles among donors. Of the donors, 70.6% and of the non-donors, 58.1 replied that they had ever been induced to donate blood (p<0.01). Major inducers were friend and personnel of mobile blood donation vehicle. On the measuring of knowledge level, the average rates of correct answer was higher in donors (62.6%) than in non-donors (54.1%) (p<0.01). Higher the education level was presented, higher the knowledge level (p<0.05). There have been noticeable difference between donors and non-donors in blood replying the questionnaire set to measure their attitude toward blood donation, especially in the items such as “impression toward blood”, “selection of transfusion blood source” and “view on the situation of blood shortage.” The major motivation toward blood donation of the groups were “possible future need” and “altruism or humanitarian interest”. The major reasons for not donation blood in both groups were “fear of the needle” and “dread to visit to mobile car or center”.

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  • Association between Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Blood Donation in University Students
    Jung-Hyun Kim, Joong-Soo Yoon
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2015; 15(10): 316.     CrossRef
Lead in Maternal Blood and Cord Blood.
Dong Soo Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):147-157.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.147
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To investigate the blood lead concentration, their interrelation, correlation factor and influence on pregnant women and newborn, lead concentration in the maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were determined. Samples were collected from 130 mothers who were living in the Taegu City, during March, 1989. Blood lead concentration was estimated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (IL. 551) equipped with Flameless Furnace Atomizer (IL. 665). The mean lead concentration of maternal and cord blood were 17.47±7.92 µg/dl, 15.31±7.98 µg/dl, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the lead concentration of maternal and cord blood, r=0.663, Y=0.667X+3.646. No significant correlation was observed between previous spontaneous abortion and obstetric complication of mother and maternal blood lead concentration. Similarly, no significant correlation was observed between the sex, gestational age of neonate and cord blood lead concentration. But the birth weight of neonate had some negative correlation with cord blood lead concentration. The blood lead concentration of mother who had engaged in manufactures were higher than others and the longer working years were, the higher blood lead concentration were. Significant correlation was observed between husband's occupational exposure to lead and maternal blood lead concentration.
Isolation of the Legionella Species from Specimens of Cooling Tower Water.
Jong Hak Chung, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Bhum Kim, Jun Sakong
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):77-84.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.77
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The principal mode of the transmission of Legionnaires disease is an inhalation of the cooling tower water droplets in which Legionellae exist. As a central cooling system is popularized in many public buildings and large buildings nowadays, the number of cooling towers in rapidly increasing. Therefore the possibility of an outbreak of Legionnaires disease is likely increased. To determine the presence of Legionella in cooling tower water as the first step for the prevention of Legionnaires disease, 48 samples of cooling tower water were taken from 24 buildings in Taegu city in July and September 1987. Three samples out of 24 water samples in September yielded Legionella but it was not isolated in the samples of July. Isolated 3 Legionellas were identified as Legionella peumophila. It seems that Legionella from the cooling tower will be isolated more frequently in late summer than early because central cooling system is stopped operation during winter season which in cool. As based on our survey, Legionnaires disease can occur in Taegu city and if it happens it is most likely due to L. pneumophila.
Physico-chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Tap Water in the Apartment in Taegu City.
Seok Bhum Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):69-75.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.69
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The drinking water in apartment is stored in reservoir tank and thereafter supplied each household. In case the drinking water in stored too long or insanitary, tap water might change in quality. This study was carried out to evaluate the physic-chemical and microbiological conditions of 36 samples of tap water of apartments compared to 18 samples of tap water of independence houses in Taegu City from May to October, 1987. Main findings are summarized as follows: PH values were within normal range in all samples. Samples less than 0.2ppm in residual chlorine accounted for 16.7% in the apartment and 5.6% in the independence house. Nitrite nitrogen was detected 2.8% of apartment samples only. Among the total of 54 samples, 11.1% of the apartment and independence samples were over the normal value in standard plate count. Samples more than 1.8 of most probable number (MPN) accounted for 27.8% in the apartment and 33.3% in the independence house. In result of test for residual chlorine, nitrite nitrogen, standard plate count, and MPN, the proportion of the samples revealed inappropriate in respect of drinking water standards. In case of all sorts of tests was 2.7% in apartment and nothing in independence houses, in case of 3 sorts of tests was 2.7% in apartment and 5.6% in independence houses, in case of 2 sorts of tests was 8.3% in apartment and 5.6% in independence houses, and in case of only 1 test was 25.0% in apartment and 22.2% in independence houses. Correlation between residual chorine and standard plate count, and between standard plate count and MPN were observed. It was found that the more years since construction of apartment were, the worse tap water was in quality.
Prevalence of Hypertension Among the Aged in Urban Area.
Suck Bum Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(1):123-128.   Published online August 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.1.123
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To estimate the prevalence of hypertension among the aged in urban area, the blood pressure was examined on the subjects of 565 men and 762 women of 65 years old and older among the residents of Nam-Ku and Soosung-Ku in Taegu between January and December, 1986. The mean systolic blood pressure was 136.0±25.01 mmHg in male and 133.0±24.56 mmHg in female. The mean diastolic blood pressure was 83.7±14.41 mmHg in male and 82.4±14.43mmHg in female. There was no significant differences between male and female in both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. According to WHO category, the prevalence of pure systolic hypertension (≥169/≤95 mmHg) was 7.8% in male and 6.8% in female. The prevalence of pure diastolic hypertension (≥160/≤95 mmHg) was 6.0% in male and 3.9% in female. The prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertension (≥160/≤95 mmHg) was 13.5% in male and 12.9% in female. According to Joint National Committee category, the percentage of normal blood pressure (/<90 mmHg) was 46.7% in male and 50.8% in female. The prevalence of mild hypertension (/90=104 mmHg) was 34.5% in male and 34.6% in female. The prevalence of moderate hypertension (/105=114 mmHg) was 5.1% in male and 2.5% in female. The prevalence of severe hypertension (/≥115 mmHg) was 2.3% in male and 2.5% in female. The prevalence of borderline isolated systolic hypertension (140-159/<90 mmHg) was 9.0% in male and 6.6% in female. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension (≥160/<90 mmHg) was 2.3% in male and 2.5% in female.
Hemoglobin Concentration in Female Workers of Occupational Exposure to Lead.
Nan Kyu Park, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):73-79.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.73
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lead on the incidence of anemia and to find cases with lead poisoning early among female workers who have been exposed to lead occupationally, for one year from August, 1985. The level of blood lead and hemoglobin concentration were observed for 284 female lead workers and 123 female non-lead workers of industries in the Gumi industrial complex in Kyungpook Province. The average age was 20.3±2.9 years and 21.1±3.5 years in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. The average working duration was 26.46±19.26 months in lead workers. The mean value of blood lead was 30.11±6.61 µg/100 ml and 21.86±3.75 µg/100 ml in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. There were significant differences between two groups. The mean value of hemoglobin concentration was 14.00±0.57 g/100 ml and 14.03±0.64 g/100 ml in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. Anemia cases were not observed at Hb concentration below 12g/100 ml. The percentages of lead workers at Hb concentration ranged 12.0~13.0 g/100 ml were 4.5%. There was no dose-response relationship between blood lead level and the incidence of anemia. There were no remarkable differences between age and blood lead level as well as Hb concentration, and between working duration and the level of blood lead and hemoglobin.
Korean Aspect of the Medical Problems of the Aged.
Koing Bo Kwun, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):191-202.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.191
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As the result of a significant improvement in the economic situation and development of scientific techniques in Korea during the last 20 years, the life expectancy of Korea people has lengthened considerably and as a result the number of old aged people has markedly increased. Such an increase of the number of aged people brought about many problems. Authors would like to take a medical look at the “Problem of old aged people” presently facing us in Korea. Currently the number of people over 65 has increased rapidly and is 1,620,000, 4% of total population. But it is still much lower than 8.9% in Japan, 10.7% in U.S.A., and 14.9% in the United Kingdom. Over 25% of these aged people were found to have at least more than one disease which requires medical care. Diseases occur in the circulatory system, 30.9%, respiratory system, 17.1%, digestive system 8.6%, metal disorders, 8.4%, malignant neoplasms, 7.0%. About 51% of the aged over 65 are under medical security benefit, mostly with partial coverage plan. Their clinic visit rate was very low (2.0% in 1981), which might be due to financial reasons. Since diseases affecting the aged progress chronically, early detection and long term care are utter most important. However there is almost no special facility, long term care center or geriatric specialist. For proper management of medical problems in the growing population of the Korea elderly expansion of medical security coverage, greater number of specialized facilities, education of geriatric special manpower and efficient operating system should be established.
A Study on Depression in College Students.
Jong Bum Lee, Byung Tak Park, Sung Douk Cheung, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):123-132.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.123
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The authors studied depression in 5,869 college students (male: 3,893, female: 1,976) using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The results are as follows: 1) Female college students showed significantly higher total depression scores than male college students (p<0.001). 2) The items of confusion, indecisiveness, and psychomotor retardation were scored higher in both groups and the items of suicidal rumination, psychomotor agitation, constipation and tachycardia were scored lower in both groups. 3) 18.2% of male college students showed rather serious depression level of score 50 or higher, while 33.1% of female college students showed the same scores. 4) The psychosocial factors relating to pessimistic views to past, present & future self-images showed significantly high depression scores. 5) The depression items of fatigue, anxiousness, tachycardia, apprehension, fear, and body aches & pain were correlated significantly over 0.40 of correlation coefficient.
A Study on Anxiety in College Students.
Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Sung Douk Cheung, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):113-122.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.113
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The authors studied anxiety, using Zung's SelfRating Anxiety Scale (SAS), in the subjects of 3,893 male and 1,976 female college students of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of SAS during the periods from October to November, 1984, and applied ANOVA and ttest on the anxiety scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results could be summarized as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total anxiety scores between male and female students; male students scored 36.92±7.07, female students scored 39.63±7.51, p<0.001. The anxiety scores relating to the items of sweating, apprehension, restlessness, insomnia, dyspnea were relatively higher in both groups. The anxiety scores in the items of paresthesias, mental disintegration, tremors, faintness, dizziness were lower in both groups. Two hundred and one male students (5.2%) showed seriously high anxiety scores of 50 or higher, while 201 female students (10.2%) showed the same scores. So the authors inferred that the features of anxiety symptoms were much the same in our country, but females showed more various symptoms and higher level of anxiety than males. In a comparison between male students in different school grades, freshmen showed the highest level of anxiety scores and as the grades of the students became higher, the levels of anxiety scores were lower. The female students who resided in dormitory or other residences, and whose educational fees were paid by brothers or sisters, showed higher level of anxiety scores. There was s strong tendency toward higher anxiety scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their colleges or departments, and who had pessimistic views of self-image in the past, present, or future, in both groups.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Influence of Anxiety, Depression and Stress on Adjustment to College in Freshmen of a University
    Sin-Hyeong Lee, Hwee-Soo Jeong, Dong-Wook Lee, Ki-Heum Park, Zu-Young Yun, Jung-Jae Park
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2009; 30(10): 796.     CrossRef
Evaluation of the Mental Health Status of the Aged by Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale.
Jung Hoon Lee, Byung Tak Park, Seung Douk Cheung, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):121-128.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.121
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The authors studied on anxiety, using Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), on the subjects of 329 men and 522 women of 60 years old and older. This study was carried out for 8 months from November 1983 to June 1984 in the area of Seoul, Taegu and Kyungsan Gun, Kungpook province. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the means of total anxiety scores between the two groups of men and women. The anxiety scores in items of sweating, apprehension, dyspnea, restlessness and insomnia were relatively high in both groups. The scores of faintness, panic, fear, tremor and facial flushing were low in both groups. Among 329 men, 48 (14.6%) showed rather serious anxiety level of score 50 or higher, while 153 of 522 women (29.4%) showed the same score. Among these psychosocial factors, supporter, living, place, religion and security system are significantly related with anxiety scores in both groups (p<0.01).

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science