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Jin Sung Kim 16 Articles
Manifestation of Cognitive Function in Geriatric Patient with Subjective Memory Complaint.
Han Kyul Park, Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Wan Seok Seo, Bon Hoon Koo, Dai Seg Bai
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2010;27(1):27-36.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2010.27.1.27
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to find out cognitive function of the patients with subjective memory complaint. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 1st 2005 to May 31st 2009, 155 normal individuals without any medical illness who visited Yeungnam University Hospital to undergo medical checkup with neurocognitive test was enrolled, and checked by using Cognitive Assessment & Reference Diagnostic System. RESULTS: 107 of the patients had normal cognitive function, 21 patients (about 15%) were diagnosed with dementia, and 10 patients (about 7%) were diagnosed with considerable psychiatric illness, such as depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder. CONCLUSION: Because the patients with subjective memory complaint can be diagnosed as any psychiatric illness as well as dementia, sensitive screening test and early psychiatric approach is needed.

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  • Effects of a Cognition Activation Program for the Institutionalized Old-Old in Korea
    Hung Sa Lee, Dohyun Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2013; 24(4): 427.     CrossRef
Prognostic Factors in Postpsychotic Depressive Disorder of Schizophrenia.
Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Wan Seok Seo, Bon Hoon Koo, Yi Youg Kim, Jung Youp Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2005;22(2):150-165.   Published online December 31, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2005.22.2.150
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PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic factors of postpsychotic depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients were selected based on the diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV, PANSS and ESRS. For all patients information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics. The subjective depressive symptoms and the objective depressive symptoms, as well as patients insight regarding psychosis were evaluated. The subjective depressive symptoms were evaluated by BDI and ZDS; the objective depressive symptoms were evaluated by HDRS and CDSS, and patient insight into the psychosis was evaluated by KISP. RESULTS: The comparisons using demographic and clinical characteristics showed that HDRS and CDSS had significant difference with regard to gender and suicide attempts; the BDI was associated with difference in education level and age of onset. The patients with scores above cuff-off score for each scale were 20 (25.0%) for the BDI, 16 (20.0%) for the ZDS, 18 (22.5%) for the CDSS and 6 (7.5%) for the HDRS. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the scores for the KISP, education levels, gender and suicide attempts were the main prognostic factors in patients with the psychotic depressive disorder of schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The main prognostic factors in psychotic depressive disorder of schizophrenia included: insight into psychosis, suicidal attempts. Insight into the psychosis was the most reliable prognostic factor but this characteristic had a negative relationship to the with depressive symptoms.
The Effect of Spiritual Well-being on the Mental Health of the Cho-Sun Tribal Women Residing in P.R. of China.
Seung Deuk Cheung, Jong Bum Lee, Jin Sung Kim, Wan Seok Seo, Dai Seg Bai, Soon Jae Park, Yeol Joo, Hyoung Uk Youm, Cheung Yuan Jin, Jiu Miao Jin, Yeung Log Ahn, Da Hong Huang, Mei Zi Biao, Tai Ji Zheng, Chang Lie Zhao
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(2):151-166.   Published online December 31, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.2.151
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BACKGROUND
Spirituality has been an important part of Transpersonal Psychology and is believed to have a large effect on the mental health because it has been systematized. The aim of this study was to determine the level of spiritual disposition on human beings along with its effects on one's mental health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study targeted 400 women residing in Youn-Gil city of JiLin Prov., which is a district of the Cho-Sun tribe in China. Their spiritual well-being was studied using the Spiritual Well-being Scale-Korean Version. The spiritual well-being scale consists of 2 sub-scales of religious well-being and existential well-being. The study was evaluated using a lie scale, psychotic trend, and a combined anxiety-depression scale. The results were considered to be factors of one's mental health. The correlation between the spiritual well-being and each tendency was analyzed by regression analysis. RESULTS: The total score of the Cho-Sun tribal women according to the spiritual well-being scale was 68.29 which was much less than the 100.65 of Korean Christian women. There was no significant correlation between the spiritual well-being and the Lie trend. However, it was found that 86% (344) of Cho-Sun tribal women scored above 70 in the Lie trend with a mean score of 74.57 which is higher than normal populations. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and psychotic trend, the psychotic trend became significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. On the other hand, the psychotic trend became significantly lower when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and anxiety, the anxiety was significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the anxiety level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and depression, the depression level was somewhat significantly high when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the depression level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the effects of spiritual well-being on a person's mental health among Cho-Sun tribal women in Youn-Gil city of JiLIn Prov., P.R. of China. The results found that the religious well-being, which is a sub-scale of spiritual well-being, had negative effects while the existential well-being had positive effects on the mental health. These results proved that a person's religious disposition had negative effects on their mental health in a communitarian society.

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  • Spiritual Health in Korean Culture -Q methodological approach-
    Hyung Wha Shim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2015; 22(2): 129.     CrossRef
The Psychiatric Consideration on the Mind in the Treatise of Awakening Mahayana Faith.
Jin sung Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1999;16(2):255-269.   Published online December 31, 1999
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1999.16.2.255
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BACKGROUND
The author investigated the structural theory of the mind. the origin of psychopathology. the resolving stage of the psychopathology. and nature of the true mind in the human mind. METHODS: the author reviewed the "Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana"by Mamyung and "The Commentary on the Treatise of Awakening Mahayana Faith" and "Expository Notes on the Treatise of Awakening Mahayana Faith" by Wonhyo. RESULTS: The author of the Treatise insistod on bellieving the true mind in the human being. Also in the treatise, Alayavijnana explained the harmonized mind of the true mind and the ignorant mind. The ignorant mind as the source of fundamental ignorance. which results in peripheral ignorance arising from the ego in relation with the extenal world. Also, he explains the origin of ignorance and encourages to abandon the deep attachment to ignorance. The developing and resolving stages of ignorance are similar to the developing and resolving stage of psychopathology. CONCLUSION: The author insists on the psychiatric application of the mind theory in the "Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana", "The Commentary on the Treatise of Awakening Mahayana Faith". and "Expository Notes on the Treatise of Awakening Mahayana Faith". Also. the author encourages deep faith of the true human mind.
An Investingation of Psychological Factors in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia.
Jin Sung Kim, Dai Seog Bai, Kwang Heun Lee, Jeong Ill Suh
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1999;16(2):244-254.   Published online December 31, 1999
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1999.16.2.244
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OBJECTIVES
This subjects investigated the psychological characteristics of patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: The subjects included ninety patients with functional dyspepsia and sixty four psychiatric out-patients. We administered Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Illness Behavior Questionnaire(IBQ). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with functional dyspepsia and the psychiatric out-patients by MMPI. Two groups both showed a higher distribution in hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria subscales than in any other subscales. The patients with functional dyspepsia showed lower scores in disease conviction and affective disturbance subscales in IBQ subscales were similar between the patients with functional dyspepsia and the psychiatric out-patients. The patients with functional dyspepsia were divided into three groups for the Multivariate cluster analysis: normal(group 1), similar to psychiatric out-patient(group 2), and severe neurotic(group 3). The severe neurotic group showed higher scores in hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychathenia, and schizophrenia subscales in MMPI and showed significant different scores in affective disturbance, disease conviction, psychological and somatic concerns, affective disturbance, denial, and irritability subscales in IBQ. CONCLUSION: If patients with functional dyspepsia show severe neurotic behavior, such as those in(group 3), they would need appropriate psychiatric intervention.

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  • The Relationship Between Children's Temperament and Character to Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
    Eun Ju Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Sun Haeng Lee, Gyu Tae Chang
    The Journal of Korean Oriental Pediatrics.2015; 29(1): 60.     CrossRef
A Study on Neurosis According to Experience of Sexual Abuse among Female High School Students in Taegu
Hyung Bae Park, Jin Sung Kim, Sang Ruyl Jang, Tae Yong Rho, Hye Soo Suh, Chang Su Kim, Kwang Hun Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(1):113-123.   Published online June 30, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.1.113
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1) The sexual abuse victim group showed significantly higher neurotic traits of Free floating anxiety (p<0. 05), Phobic(p<0.01), Obsession(p<0.01), Somatic(p<0.05), Depression(p<0.01) than the control group. 2) The Neurotic traits of Somatic(p<0.01), Depression(p<0.01), Hysteric(p<0.01) were higher in the multiple-abused than the single-abused. 3) When the duration of being abused was concerned, subjects with more than 1 year duration had significantly higher neurotic traits of Obsession(p<0.05), Somatic(p<0.05), Depression(p<0.05) than subjects with less than 1 year duration. 4) The neurotic traits of Phobic, Somatic, Depression were significantly higher in the subjects with higher intensity of sexual abuse than with lower intensity. 5) Among 68 victims, 31 girls(45%) were assaulted by strangers, 10(14%) were by relatives, 7(10.3%) were by siblings, 6(8.8%) were by neihbors. Among them, 34 girls(50%) bad counselling or psychotherapy and the people to whom they had sought for help were friends(23 girls ; 68%), parents (7 girls ; 11.7%) and mental health professonals (2 girls ; 5.9%).
An Elementary School Children Screen Test for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Taegu City.
Heung Bae Park, Jin Sung Kim, Sang Ruyl Jang, Sung Chan Park, Hye Soo Suh, Kwang Hun Lee, Young Uck Kim, Chang Su Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(1):56-74.   Published online June 30, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.1.56
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The authors applied ADDES-HV parent evaluation scale for the purpose of screeing test to 538 2nd grade elementary school students from March 1994 to May. The results were as follows: There was no differences in scores of ADHD between schools. In comparing the male and female between three school students, male students showed signifieant high scores (p<0.05) than female students in the score of ADDES-HV subscale and total. There was no significant differences in ADDES-HV scale between male students and female students in both ADHD patients and normal controls. In reliability test for test and retest, the reliability coefficient was higher satisfatorily and that of inattention was 0.80, inpulsivity was 0.69, hyperactivity was 0.63 and the total score was 0.82. In reliability test by internal consistancy, the Cronbach a coefficient of patient group was 0.85(p<0.05) and that of normal control was 0.84(p<0.05). The Concurrent validity between ADDES-HV scale and DSM- III -R scale was 0.57(p<0.05) in ADHD patient group and 0.84(p<0.05) in normal control group. In discriminant validity test between ADHD patient group and normal control, the ADHD patient group showed higher score(p<0.05). The total disciminant capacity of the patient group in ADDES-HV scale was 94.44%. When we regard the cut off point as standard deviation 1.5, the male student was 80 score and the female student was 69 score. In this point of view, ADDES-HV scale was proved to be the useful screening test tool for ADHD research and showed higher reliability and validity in applying to Korean subjects.
A Study on Somatization in Korean Women.
Jin Sung Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1994;11(2):332-337.   Published online December 31, 1994
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1994.11.2.332
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The author studied somatization using 7-symptoms screening test in 12 females, who lived in the Taegu and compared the results with those of 99 males who lived in the Taegu, during the period from the beginning of August 1993 to end of January 1994. The results were follows : The number of females screened for somatization disorder were ten (5.8%). Its rate was higher than males (3.1%). Ten screened women most frequently complained of pain in extremities, painful menstruation, shortness of breath, and amnesia. There was a strong tendency toward higher levels of somatization in the females who were dissatified with their home atmosphere, present well being, and divorced or widowed, lower educated and those who had pessimistic views of self image in the past, present, or future.

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  • Re-discovering voice: Korean immigrant women in group music therapy
    Seung-A. Kim
    The Arts in Psychotherapy.2013; 40(4): 428.     CrossRef
A case of atrophy of bilateral frontal lobe which showed negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Tae Yong Rho, Jin Sung Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(2):544-549.   Published online December 31, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.2.544
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The authors have experienced a case of organic mental disorder with bilateral frontal lobe atrophy in. a 36-year-old man. He showed negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as anhedonia, social withdrawal, flat affect, poverty of thought.
A study on anxiety-depression and psychoticism in hospitalized patients.
Jin Sung Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):54-67.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.54
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The author studied the mental status of 497 patients admitted in non-psychiatric wards and 42 patients diagnosed as mental disorders by DSM-III-R criteria and admitted in three general hospitals located in Pusan city, using NADS and PSCS. The assessment were obtained from October, 1991 to March, 1992 and the results as follows: The mean±SD of Anxiety-Depression scores were 34.4±10.4 in non-psychiatric patients and 50.0±18.3 in psychiatric patients. The psychiatric group had significantly higher scores than non-psychiatric group. The mean±SD of Psychosis scores were 3.9±4.4 in non-psychiatric patients and 20.3±9.8 in psychiatric patients. The psychiatric group had significantly higher scores than non-psychiatric group. In the psychosocial factors, dissatisfaction in family atmosphere and acquaintanceship with parents (P<0.001, relatively), pessimistic in future, present and past self-images (P<0.001, relatively), and yes in previous psychiatric treatment of admission (p<0.01, relatively) had common significant relationships to Anxiety-Depression and Psychosis scores. There were correlationships between NADS scores and PSCS scores (γ=0.74), past and present self-images (γ=0.45), present and future self images (γ=0.45), past and future self-images (γ=0.34) and family atmosphere and acquaintanceship with parents (γ=0.49) The regression analysis revealed that present self-image, acquaintanceship with parents, future self-image, past self-image, and family atmosphere, in order of significance were to be descriptive or predicable variances for Anxiety-Depression status. The discriminant analysis according to Anxiety-Depression scores showed that the cases of incorrect classification were 22 for non-psychiatric patient group and 2 for psychiatric patient group.
A Study on Obsessin & Lie in College Freshmen.
Jin Sung Kim, Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Douck Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):111-125.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.111
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The authors studied obsession, using Derogatis'SCL-90, and lie tendency using MMPI, in the subjects of 2586 male and 1206 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of self-rating Obsession scale and Lie scale during the periods from January to February, 1988, and applied ANOVA and t-test on obsession and lie scores in order to compare than between various psychosocial factor, and sexes. The results as follows: 1. There was not significant difference in the mean average of total obsession scores between male and female students: male students scored 10.26±5.21 m female students scored 10.54±5.01. 2. High scored items were doubting, indecisiveness, inattention, obsessive thoughts and preoccupation with accuracy. 3. 37 male students (1.4%) showed high obsession scores of 25 or higher, while 9 female students (0.7%) showed the same scores. 4. There was strong tendency toward higher obsession scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present of future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The male students who attended the department of fine arts, who grew at the Up& Whose educational fees were paid by brothers & sisters showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01). The female students who grew at the Myun & who were self-cook showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.05). 5. There was not significant difference in the mean averages of total lie scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.73±2.49, female students scored 4.70±2.16. 6. High scored items were NO. 14, 8, 11, 9 and 1 in the table 6. 7. 98 male students (3.7%) showed high lie scores of 70 or high, while 27 female students (2.2%) showed the same scores. 8. There was strong tendency toward higher lie scores in the students who were satisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had optimistic view of self in the past, present or future in both group(respectively P<0.001). The students who attended the department of pharmacy, music, evening programs showed higher level of lie scores (P<0.05).
A Study on Paranoid Ideation & Obsession in College Freshmen.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Deuk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(2):39-50.   Published online December 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.2.39
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The authors studied paranoid ideation and obsession, using Derogatis' SCL-90, in the subjects of 2,564 male and 1,252 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of Self-Rating Paranoid ideation and Obsession Scale during the periods from January to February, 1987, and applied ANOVA and t-test on paranoid ideation and obsession scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: 1. There was not significant difference in the mean averages of total paranoid ideation scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.16±3.09, female students scored 4.16±2.91. 2. High scored items were delusion and suspiciousness. 3. Fifty-nine male students (2.3%) showed high paranoid ideation scores of 12 or higher, while twenty-six female students (2.1%) showed the same scores. 4. There was strong tendency toward higher paranoid ideation scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present or future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The male students who believed protestantism showed higher level of paranoid ideation scores (P<0.01). The male students who attended the department of fine art showed higher level of paranoid ideation scores (P<0.05). 5. There was significant difference in the mean averages of total obsession scores between male and female students (P<0.05): male students scored 10.40±5.43, female students scored 10.75±5.02 6. High scored items were perfectionism, indecisiveness, inattention & obsessive thoughts. 7. Thirty-eight male students (1.6%) showed high obsession scores of 25 or higher, while fifteen female students (1.2%) showed the same scores. 8. There was strong tendency toward higher obsession scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present, or future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The female students who attended the department of home economic & whose educational fees were paid by her brothers & sister, showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.01).
A Study on Anxiety-Depression in College Freshmen.
Hyung Bae Park, Jin Sung Kim, Chang Su Kim, Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Deuk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(1):105-121.   Published online August 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.1.105
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The authors studied anxiety-depression using New Anxiety-Depression Scale (NADS), in the subjects of 3,499male and 1,335 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of NADS during the periods from January to February, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on anxiety-depression scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total scores between male and female students: male students scored 31.49±6.57 female students scored 33.37±6.84 (p<0.001) The anxiety-depression scores relating to the items of sleep disturbance, apprehension, decreased libido, and fatigue were relatively higher in both groups. Ninety-nine male students (2.8%) showed seriously high degree anxiety-depression scores of 50 or higher, while forty female students (3.0%) showed the same scores. There was a strong tendency toward higher anxiety-depression scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, colleges, departments and familiarity of parents, and those who had pessimistic views of self image in the past, present, or future in both groups (p<0.001). The students whose maturation locations were below city level, showed higher level of anxiety-depression scores in both groups (p<0.05). NADS and SAS, SDS, and Leeds scale were correlated significantly in 0.64, 0.61, and 0.77 of correlation coefficient.
A Study on Psychoticism in College Freshmen.
Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung, Byung Tak Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):141-149.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.141
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The authors studied psychoticism, using Derogatis's SCL-90, in the subjects of 3,499 male and 1,335 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of Self-Rating Psychoticism Scale during the periods from January to February, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on psychoticism scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total psychoticism scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.62+4.01, female students scored 5.03+3.89 (P<0.01). Thirteen male students (0.4%) showed high psychoticism scores of 20 or higher, while seven female students (0.5%) showed the same scores. The male students who have maturated in city and the female students whose educational fees were paid by self, showed higher level of psychoticism scores (P<0.05). The male and female students who believed Protestantism showed higher level of psychoticism scores (respectively P<0.05, P<0.01). There was a strong tendency toward higher psychoticism scores in the students who were dissatisfies with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic views of self in the past, present or future in both groups (P<0.001).
A Study on Depression in the Elderly at the Home for the Aged.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Hyung Bae Park, Bok Soon Kwon, Jung Hoon Lee, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):121-130.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.121
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The authors studied depression, using Zung's self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), in the subjects of 65 males and 231 females at the homes for the aged in Taegu and Kyong-buk areas. The authors collected the date of SDS during the period from June to August, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on the depression scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors and sexes. The results could be summarized as follow: There was significantly difference in the mean average of total depression scores between the two groups: elderly males scored 38.80±11.92, elderly females scored 43.21±14.33 (p<0.05). The depression scores in the items of hopelessness, personal devaluation, weight loss, emptiness and confusion were relatively higher than the scores in the other items in both groups. Nine elderly males (16%) showed seriously high depression scores of 50 and over, while fourth-seven elderly females (33%) showed the same scores. Among these psychosocial factors, age, birth place, and growing place are significantly related to higher depression scores in both groups.
A Study on Organic Brain Syndrome in the Elderly at the Home for the Aged.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):111-120.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.111
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The authors studied organic brain syndrome, using organic brain syndrome scale of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-Ⅲ, in the subjects of 65 males and 231 females at the homes for the aged in the Taegu and Kyong-buk areas. The authors collected the data during the period from June to August, 1986, and applied ANOVA and x²-test in order to compare various psychologic factors in relation to the organic brain syndrome. The results could be summarized as follows: The elderly males (15%) showed high OBS scores of 12 and over, while ninety elderly females (39%) showed the same scores. Among those psychosocial factors, age, education, birth place, occupation, religion, history before institutionalization are significantly related to the OBS scores.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science