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Byung Tak Park 17 Articles
A study of anxiety scale applied to patients with anxiety disorder.
Jung Hoon Lee, Byung Tak Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):156-166.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.156
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied anxiety, using Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), in the subjects of 127 male and 38 female patients with anxiety disorder. The authors investigated 165 patients in Yeungnam university hospital from January, 1987 to June, 1991. In order to analyze the data on anxiety scores Pearson's product moment coefficient correlation method and factor analysis were carried out by SPSS/PC+ program. The results were as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total anxiety scores among patients with anxiety disorder and male and female college freshmen: patients with anxiety disorder scored 42.40±7.74, male students scored 32.91±5.70, female students scored 34.48±6.00. The anxiety scores relating to the items of body aches & pains, fatigue, anxiousness, panic and urinary frequency were relatively high in patients with anxiety disorder. The anxiety scores on the items of restlessness, apprehension, dyspnea, sweating, and insomnia were relatively low in patients with anxiety disorder. Twenty-nine anxiety disorder group (17.5%) showed significantly high anxiety scores of 50 or over. The inter-rater reliability of Zung's self-rating anxiety scale was 0.71.

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  • Impact of Quality of Communication With Clinicians on Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life Among Korean Family Caregivers in End-of-Life Care Settings
    Min Young Jung, Alicia Matthews, Chang Park, Colleen Corte, Geraldine Gorman, Sujeong Kim
    American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®.2022; 39(10): 1137.     CrossRef
  • Reliability and Validity of Korean Geriatric Anxiety Inventory(K-GAI)
    Jiyun Kim, Myung Sook Park, Doo Nam Oh
    Journal of muscle and joint health.2014; 21(1): 75.     CrossRef
A Study of Depression Observed Among The Eledrly Residing in Home For The Aged In Korea.
Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(2):79-87.   Published online December 31, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.2.79
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Using Zung's self-rating depression scale, the authors studied depression in 310 elderlies residing in the 9 home for the aged (HFA) in Kyungbuk area, and 234 elderlies living in Taegu city and 107 elderlies attending a Life-long education program in Taegu, which serve as a control group, Community resident elderlies (CRE). The research had been administered during the period from June to August, 1986. The results were as follows: 1. The mean scores of male, female, and the total of the elderlies in HFA were 38.95±11.55, 44.18±14.15, and 42.8±13.7 respectively while CRE marked 40.8±11.3 for male, 45.2±12.0 for female, and 43.4±11.9 for the total. Therefore there were significant differences between male and female in both groups (<0.01, p<0.001), though no significant difference between the two groups. However, the depression score of elderlies in HFA might be much higher than that of CRE if 81 elderlies (14.2%) in HFA who had been left out of the statistical evaluation due to their having severe depression, organic brain syndrome, or pseudoementia, etc had been included. 2. The score distribution by items for the elderlies in HFA were from highest scores hopelessness, worthlessness, emptiness, decreased appetite, confusion, while for CRE, hopelessness, decreased appetite, psychomotor retardation, indecisiveness, and worthlessness, Elderlies in HFA showed significantly high scores in depressed mood, weight loss, suicidal rumination (ideation) and psychomotor excitement, while CRE showed significantly high scores in decreased appetite, psychomotor retardation, indecisiveness, and dissatisfaction. 3. Elderlies who scored over 50 numbered 10 males (16%), 57 females (34%), and total of 67 (29%) in HFA and 28 male (21%), 77 females (37%), and total of 105 (31%) in CRE: female showed higher seores in both groups. 4. Psychococial factors such as getting older (respectively p<0.01, p<0.01), being Buddhist (respectively p<0.01, p<0.01), and monthly pocket money less than ₩30,000 (respectively p<0.001, p<0.001) were found to have a noticeable impact on the depression level of the elderlies in both groups. Factors such as illiteracy (p<0.001), monthly pocket money less than ₩10,000 (p<0.05), and having no family (p<0.01) recorded significantly higher scores among CRE than the elderlies in HFA.
Effect of the Early Traumatic Experience on the Mental Health of the Elderly.
Kwang Hun Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Jong Bum Lee, Byung Tak Park, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(2):67-77.   Published online December 31, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.2.67
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was intended to analyze the relation between the psychic traumatic experience and the psychological health of the aged. The authors carried out this study by means of the combined anxiety-depression scale (CADS) and the preadolescence traumatic experience scale (PTES) with 278 aged men and women residing in Taegu from September to October 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Based on the scores evaluated by CADS, the scores of the both groups showed that comparative group was accounted for 40.15±6.19, while the experimental group for 57.75±6.37, which showed significantly higher score in the experimental group (p<0.001). 2. The experimental group showed significantly higher early experience score than the comparative group in the dietary difficulty, alcoholism among family members, disunion between husband and wife, trouble between mother and children, early mother loss, parent's indifference and unwanted birth (p<0.001). 3. The experimental group showed higher early experience score than the comparative group by sex, age, marital status and grown location (p<0.001). 4. When the subjects were included in the unemployed and in the middle or low classes and their parents were engaged in agriculture and commercial business and believing in buddhism or no-religion, showed higher experience score (p<0.001).
A study on the attitude toward dying and hospice.
Young Uck Kim, Jung Hoon Lee, Jong Bum Lee, Byung Tak Park, Seung Duk Cheung, Myung Se Kim, Hoo Ja Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(2):55-66.   Published online December 31, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.2.55
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This research is focused on the attitudes toward dying and hospice. 4subjects groups are Ca. patient, Ca. patient's family, elderly, medical personnel. A 40 questionnaire was filled out by each participant. For this study chi-square and T-test was done. The results were as follows: 1. Telling the truth 61.2% of all subject groups agreed upon telling the impending death. About 40% of elderly group and cancer patient group were disagreed which is the highest percentage in all groups. Particularly medical personnel group were remarkably high in telling the truth. 2. Attitudes of medical personnels 43.3% of all groups agreed upon medical personnels prefer to avoid dying patient. In medical personnel group. 44% of respondents disagreed comparably higher than other group, But 37.3% of medical personnel agreed. It showed that medical personnels admitted their negative feelings toward dying patient in considerable degree. 3. Attitudes toward mechanical assistance for life-expanding or hopeless patient. 44.8% of all groups disagreed upon mechanical assistance for hopeless case. Elderly (54.9%) and medical personnels (50%) disagreed, which is higher than cancer patient (33.3%) and (22.8%) of cancer patient's family. 4. Special facility and educational preparation for dying patient. 67.4% of all groups agreed upon the needs of special facility for dying, 81.3% of medical personnels agreed which is highest percentage in all group. 5. Attitudes of family members of dying patient. 82.3% of all groups agreed upon the family members feel annoyed at dying patient. 34% of cancer patient's family member and 48% of cancer patients group agreed, but elderly group showed highest percentage (84%). 6. Perception of dying patient about imminent death. 58.3% of all group thought dying patients are aware of their impending death even though they had not been told. 77.3% of medical personnel agreed which is highest percentage in all group.

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  • Effects of Death Preparation Education on Awareness of Hospice Palliative Care and Withdrawing Life Sustaining Treatment in City Dwellers
    Pei-Ling Tsung, Yoon Joo Lee, Su Yeon Kim, Seul Ki Kim, Si Ae Kim, Hyeon Ji Kim, Yi Nam, Suk Young Ham, Kyung Ah Kang
    The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care.2015; 18(3): 227.     CrossRef
A Study on MMPI in College Freshmen.
Jung Hoon Lee, Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(2):141-150.   Published online December 31, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.2.141
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied the mental health status of the 1989 freshmen of Yeungnam University using the psychotic scale of Derogatis SCL0-90, Zung anxiety and depression scale and MMPI from January 1988 to February 1988. The subjects of this study were contained 3792 students (1206 female, 2586 male). 392 students (10.3%), out of all respondents were screened to fall on high score ranges. The authors performed a second test to 156(39.8% 47 female (30.1%), 109 male (69.9%) of the high-scored in order to clarify their mental health status and analyze various psychosocial factors; using MMPI. The MMPI results were categorized with Lachar's classification. The results were as follows: 1. By the MMPI scores, 24 respondents (15.4%) had neurotic trends, 20 (12.8%) had psychotic trends and 7 (4.5%) had trends of behavior disorder. It was about 1.4% of all 3792 freshmen. 2. On the close examination of the MMPI, 8 respondents were diagnosed for affect disorder, 6 for anxiety disorder, 9 for schizophrenia and 3 for personality disorder. It was 0.7% of all freshmen. 3. One the analysis of the psychosocial factors, the schizophrenic scores were high in the case of unsatisfy in family atmosphere, unsatisfy in marital intimacy of parents, serious in conflicts between father and I, and serious in conflicts between mother and I. 4. The hypochondriacal scores were high in the case of weak in physical condition, having hospitalization experience and physical illness.

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  • The relationship between stress and life satisfaction of Korean University students: mediational effects of positive affect and self-compassion
    Hyojin Cho, Sung-Kyung Yoo, Chan Jeong Park
    Asia Pacific Education Review.2021; 22(3): 385.     CrossRef
A Study on Obsessin & Lie in College Freshmen.
Jin Sung Kim, Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Douck Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):111-125.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.111
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied obsession, using Derogatis'SCL-90, and lie tendency using MMPI, in the subjects of 2586 male and 1206 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of self-rating Obsession scale and Lie scale during the periods from January to February, 1988, and applied ANOVA and t-test on obsession and lie scores in order to compare than between various psychosocial factor, and sexes. The results as follows: 1. There was not significant difference in the mean average of total obsession scores between male and female students: male students scored 10.26±5.21 m female students scored 10.54±5.01. 2. High scored items were doubting, indecisiveness, inattention, obsessive thoughts and preoccupation with accuracy. 3. 37 male students (1.4%) showed high obsession scores of 25 or higher, while 9 female students (0.7%) showed the same scores. 4. There was strong tendency toward higher obsession scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present of future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The male students who attended the department of fine arts, who grew at the Up& Whose educational fees were paid by brothers & sisters showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01). The female students who grew at the Myun & who were self-cook showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.05). 5. There was not significant difference in the mean averages of total lie scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.73±2.49, female students scored 4.70±2.16. 6. High scored items were NO. 14, 8, 11, 9 and 1 in the table 6. 7. 98 male students (3.7%) showed high lie scores of 70 or high, while 27 female students (2.2%) showed the same scores. 8. There was strong tendency toward higher lie scores in the students who were satisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had optimistic view of self in the past, present or future in both group(respectively P<0.001). The students who attended the department of pharmacy, music, evening programs showed higher level of lie scores (P<0.05).
A Study on Paranoid Ideation & Obsession in College Freshmen.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Deuk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(2):39-50.   Published online December 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.2.39
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The authors studied paranoid ideation and obsession, using Derogatis' SCL-90, in the subjects of 2,564 male and 1,252 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of Self-Rating Paranoid ideation and Obsession Scale during the periods from January to February, 1987, and applied ANOVA and t-test on paranoid ideation and obsession scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: 1. There was not significant difference in the mean averages of total paranoid ideation scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.16±3.09, female students scored 4.16±2.91. 2. High scored items were delusion and suspiciousness. 3. Fifty-nine male students (2.3%) showed high paranoid ideation scores of 12 or higher, while twenty-six female students (2.1%) showed the same scores. 4. There was strong tendency toward higher paranoid ideation scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present or future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The male students who believed protestantism showed higher level of paranoid ideation scores (P<0.01). The male students who attended the department of fine art showed higher level of paranoid ideation scores (P<0.05). 5. There was significant difference in the mean averages of total obsession scores between male and female students (P<0.05): male students scored 10.40±5.43, female students scored 10.75±5.02 6. High scored items were perfectionism, indecisiveness, inattention & obsessive thoughts. 7. Thirty-eight male students (1.6%) showed high obsession scores of 25 or higher, while fifteen female students (1.2%) showed the same scores. 8. There was strong tendency toward higher obsession scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic view of self in the past, present, or future in both group (respectively P<0.001). The female students who attended the department of home economic & whose educational fees were paid by her brothers & sister, showed higher level of obsession scores (respectively P<0.01).
A Study on Anxiety-Depression in College Freshmen.
Jong Bum Lee, Chang Su Kim, Hyung Bae Park, Byung Tak Park, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Deuk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(2):29-38.   Published online December 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.2.29
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The authors studied anxiety-depression using New Anxiety-Depression Scale (NADS) in the subjects of 2,564 male and 1,252 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of NADS during the periods from January to February 1987, and applied ANOVA and t-test on anxiety depression scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean average of total scores between male and female students: male students scored 33.41±8.76 and female students scored 35.34±9.02 (P<0.001). The anxiety-depression scores relating to the items of sleep disturbance, apprehension, facial flushing and fatigue were relatively scored higher in both groups. One hundred and thirty nine male students (5.4%) showed seriously higher degree of anxiety-depression scores of 50 or more, while eighty eight female students (7.0%) showed the same scores. There was a strong tendency toward higher anxiety-depression scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, colleges, departments, familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic views of self image in the past, presents and future in both groups (P<0.001).
A Study on Anxiety-Depression in College Freshmen.
Hyung Bae Park, Jin Sung Kim, Chang Su Kim, Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Seung Deuk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(1):105-121.   Published online August 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.1.105
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The authors studied anxiety-depression using New Anxiety-Depression Scale (NADS), in the subjects of 3,499male and 1,335 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of NADS during the periods from January to February, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on anxiety-depression scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total scores between male and female students: male students scored 31.49±6.57 female students scored 33.37±6.84 (p<0.001) The anxiety-depression scores relating to the items of sleep disturbance, apprehension, decreased libido, and fatigue were relatively higher in both groups. Ninety-nine male students (2.8%) showed seriously high degree anxiety-depression scores of 50 or higher, while forty female students (3.0%) showed the same scores. There was a strong tendency toward higher anxiety-depression scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, colleges, departments and familiarity of parents, and those who had pessimistic views of self image in the past, present, or future in both groups (p<0.001). The students whose maturation locations were below city level, showed higher level of anxiety-depression scores in both groups (p<0.05). NADS and SAS, SDS, and Leeds scale were correlated significantly in 0.64, 0.61, and 0.77 of correlation coefficient.
A Study on Psychoticism in College Freshmen.
Jin Sung Kim, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung, Byung Tak Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):141-149.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.141
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied psychoticism, using Derogatis's SCL-90, in the subjects of 3,499 male and 1,335 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of Self-Rating Psychoticism Scale during the periods from January to February, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on psychoticism scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total psychoticism scores between male and female students: male students scored 4.62+4.01, female students scored 5.03+3.89 (P<0.01). Thirteen male students (0.4%) showed high psychoticism scores of 20 or higher, while seven female students (0.5%) showed the same scores. The male students who have maturated in city and the female students whose educational fees were paid by self, showed higher level of psychoticism scores (P<0.05). The male and female students who believed Protestantism showed higher level of psychoticism scores (respectively P<0.05, P<0.01). There was a strong tendency toward higher psychoticism scores in the students who were dissatisfies with their home atmosphere, college, department and familiarity of parents and those who had pessimistic views of self in the past, present or future in both groups (P<0.001).
A Study on Anxiety in College Freshmen.
Hyung Bae Park, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung, Byung Tak Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):131-139.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.131
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied anxiety, using Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), in the subjects of 3,499 male and 1,335 female college freshmen of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of SAS during the periods from January to February, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on anxiety scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results are as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total anxiety scores between male and female students: male students scored 32.91±7.70, female students scored 34.48±6.00, (P<0.001). The anxiety scores relating to the items of sweating, apprehension, restlessness, and insomnia were relatively higher in both groups. The anxiety scores relating to the items of faintness, mental disintegration, tremors, dizziness were lower in both groups. Thirty-nine male students (1.1%) showed seriously high anxiety scores of 50 or higher, while twenty-one female students (1.6%) showed the same scores. So the authors inferred that the features of anxiety symptoms were much the same in our country, but female showed more various symptoms and higher level of anxiety than males. Male students attending in pharmacy showed higher level of anxiety scores (P<0.01). There was a strong tendency toward higher anxiety scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their home atmosphere, colleges, department and familiarity of parents, and those who had pessimistic views of self image in the past, present, or future, in both groups (P<0.001).
A Study on Depression in the Elderly at the Home for the Aged.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Hyung Bae Park, Bok Soon Kwon, Jung Hoon Lee, Jong Bum Lee, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):121-130.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.121
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied depression, using Zung's self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), in the subjects of 65 males and 231 females at the homes for the aged in Taegu and Kyong-buk areas. The authors collected the date of SDS during the period from June to August, 1986, and applied ANOVA and t-test on the depression scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors and sexes. The results could be summarized as follow: There was significantly difference in the mean average of total depression scores between the two groups: elderly males scored 38.80±11.92, elderly females scored 43.21±14.33 (p<0.05). The depression scores in the items of hopelessness, personal devaluation, weight loss, emptiness and confusion were relatively higher than the scores in the other items in both groups. Nine elderly males (16%) showed seriously high depression scores of 50 and over, while fourth-seven elderly females (33%) showed the same scores. Among these psychosocial factors, age, birth place, and growing place are significantly related to higher depression scores in both groups.
A Study on Organic Brain Syndrome in the Elderly at the Home for the Aged.
Byung Tak Park, Jin Sung Kim, Seung Douk Cheung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):111-120.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.111
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The authors studied organic brain syndrome, using organic brain syndrome scale of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-Ⅲ, in the subjects of 65 males and 231 females at the homes for the aged in the Taegu and Kyong-buk areas. The authors collected the data during the period from June to August, 1986, and applied ANOVA and x²-test in order to compare various psychologic factors in relation to the organic brain syndrome. The results could be summarized as follows: The elderly males (15%) showed high OBS scores of 12 and over, while ninety elderly females (39%) showed the same scores. Among those psychosocial factors, age, education, birth place, occupation, religion, history before institutionalization are significantly related to the OBS scores.
A Study on Depression in College Students.
Jong Bum Lee, Byung Tak Park, Sung Douk Cheung, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):123-132.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.123
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The authors studied depression in 5,869 college students (male: 3,893, female: 1,976) using Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The results are as follows: 1) Female college students showed significantly higher total depression scores than male college students (p<0.001). 2) The items of confusion, indecisiveness, and psychomotor retardation were scored higher in both groups and the items of suicidal rumination, psychomotor agitation, constipation and tachycardia were scored lower in both groups. 3) 18.2% of male college students showed rather serious depression level of score 50 or higher, while 33.1% of female college students showed the same scores. 4) The psychosocial factors relating to pessimistic views to past, present & future self-images showed significantly high depression scores. 5) The depression items of fatigue, anxiousness, tachycardia, apprehension, fear, and body aches & pain were correlated significantly over 0.40 of correlation coefficient.
A Study on Anxiety in College Students.
Byung Tak Park, Jong Bum Lee, Sung Douk Cheung, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):113-122.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.113
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors studied anxiety, using Zung's SelfRating Anxiety Scale (SAS), in the subjects of 3,893 male and 1,976 female college students of Yeungnam University. The authors collected the reports of SAS during the periods from October to November, 1984, and applied ANOVA and ttest on the anxiety scores in order to compare them between various psychosocial factors, and sexes. The results could be summarized as follows: There was significant difference in the mean averages of total anxiety scores between male and female students; male students scored 36.92±7.07, female students scored 39.63±7.51, p<0.001. The anxiety scores relating to the items of sweating, apprehension, restlessness, insomnia, dyspnea were relatively higher in both groups. The anxiety scores in the items of paresthesias, mental disintegration, tremors, faintness, dizziness were lower in both groups. Two hundred and one male students (5.2%) showed seriously high anxiety scores of 50 or higher, while 201 female students (10.2%) showed the same scores. So the authors inferred that the features of anxiety symptoms were much the same in our country, but females showed more various symptoms and higher level of anxiety than males. In a comparison between male students in different school grades, freshmen showed the highest level of anxiety scores and as the grades of the students became higher, the levels of anxiety scores were lower. The female students who resided in dormitory or other residences, and whose educational fees were paid by brothers or sisters, showed higher level of anxiety scores. There was s strong tendency toward higher anxiety scores in the students who were dissatisfied with their colleges or departments, and who had pessimistic views of self-image in the past, present, or future, in both groups.

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  • Influence of Anxiety, Depression and Stress on Adjustment to College in Freshmen of a University
    Sin-Hyeong Lee, Hwee-Soo Jeong, Dong-Wook Lee, Ki-Heum Park, Zu-Young Yun, Jung-Jae Park
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2009; 30(10): 796.     CrossRef
Evaluation of the Mental Health Status of the Aged by Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale.
Jung Hoon Lee, Byung Tak Park, Seung Douk Cheung, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):121-128.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.121
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The authors studied on anxiety, using Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), on the subjects of 329 men and 522 women of 60 years old and older. This study was carried out for 8 months from November 1983 to June 1984 in the area of Seoul, Taegu and Kyungsan Gun, Kungpook province. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the means of total anxiety scores between the two groups of men and women. The anxiety scores in items of sweating, apprehension, dyspnea, restlessness and insomnia were relatively high in both groups. The scores of faintness, panic, fear, tremor and facial flushing were low in both groups. Among 329 men, 48 (14.6%) showed rather serious anxiety level of score 50 or higher, while 153 of 522 women (29.4%) showed the same score. Among these psychosocial factors, supporter, living, place, religion and security system are significantly related with anxiety scores in both groups (p<0.01).
The Content Analysis of the Earliest Memories and Dreams of Psychiatric Disorders.
Byung Tak Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):67-87.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.67
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The earliest memories and dreams have been investigated in many aspects; biological, psychological, statistical, and psychotherapeutic, in psychiatric field. The approach methods to these psychic contents are innumerable according to the schools, the collector's attitudes to these materials, the collecting methods and the variable factors of the reporter. In this study the author attempted to compare the distribution of the aggression and dependency themes in these psychic contents among groups of different sexes and clinical diagnoses. In this purpose the author devised new scales, the Aggression and the Dependency Scales for the earliest memories and dreams which are composed of 12-theme classes, according to 3 aspects of the ego attitudes and 4 degrees of the intensity of drives. The scales were tested on a series of the earliest memories and dreams from 100 male medical students by two raters. The interrater reliabilities, measured by kappa method, were all significant at better than the .001 level. The author collected the reports of the earliest memories and dreams from 293 schizophrenics (161 males and 132 females) and 301 neurotics (164 males and 137 females) who were either out-patients or inpatients of 5 general hospitals and 2 private neuropsychiatric clinics and from 310 controls (169 males and 141 females) who were either students, housewives or employees in Taegu area during the periods from March to August, 1980 and from April to August, 1983. The author compared the contents of the earliest memories and dreams from these 3 clinical groups on the newly devised scales and the results could be summarized as follows; In general, the contents of the earliest memories showed more differences among diagnostically different groups, while the contents of dreams showed more differences among sexually different groups. The dependency themes were more frequent than the aggression thems in all groups. The aggression themes were more frequent in dreams than in the earliest memories. Of the earliest memory themes, the distribution of the aggression themes was different among clinical groups, i.e., most frequent in schizophrenics, next in neurotics, and least in controls. The distribution of the dependency themes was in reverse order. Attitudes of being attacked were more frequent in schizophrenics. Observing attitudes of dependency need were more frequent in neurotics while gratifying attitudes were more frequent in controls. Highest degrees of aggression and dependency were more frequent in neurotics. In the distribution of the dream themes, there were some differences among male and female schizophrenics. Aggression themes, especially active and the highest degree of aggression, were more frequent in male schizophrenics, while dependency themes, especially frustrated themes, were more frequent in female schizophrenics. Among 3 clinical groups, observing attitudes of dependency need were more frequent in female groups, while gratifying attitudes were more frequent in male groups.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science