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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Volume 21(1); June 2004
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Reviews
Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Dong Chul Lee, Wook Jin Sohn
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):1-11.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.1
  • 1,456 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Total knee arthroplasty has become a common procedure for treatment of severe osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and post-traumatic arthritis. In the past, failure of total knee arthroplasty was commonly attributable to aseptic loosening, often associated with component malalignment, soft tissue imbalance. With improved surgical instrumentation and soft tissue balancing techiniques, failure secondary to mechanical loosening has been minimal. But surgeons are still dissatisfied with implant malalignment. Correct tibiofemoral alignment seems to be particularly important since it is generally agreed that axial deviation and imprecise implantation may lead to loosening of the implant component. Navigation systems and robotic techniques could potentially solve problems of imprecision in traditional total knee arthroplasty. It is expected that the success rate and longevity of total knee arthroplasty will be improved during the twenty first century.
Surgical Management of Coexisting Glaucoma and Cataract.
Soon Cheol Cha
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):12-22.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.12
  • 1,497 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The management of coincident glaucoma and cataract is not only a common clinical challenge but also an important research topic in the ophthalmic surgical field. The purpose of this article is to compare the different surgical options on the basis of their achievable postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) control, success rates, and complication rates reported in the related literature, and to give advice on how to manage typical situations of patients with both glaucoma and cataract. Main topics were focused on indications and rationale of 3 surgical options (only cataract surgery first and later trabeculectomy, only trabeculectomy first and later cataract surgery, or simultaneous combined surgery). Modern clear corneal cataract extraction techniques resulted in a modest intermediate-term reduction of IOP and has considerably improved the success rates of combined glaucoma and cataract surgery. It also enabled future trabeculectomy to be successfully performed at a later date if necessary. Trabeculectomy alone achieved better IOP regulation than phacotrabeculectomy (combined surgery), but subsequent cataract surgery may compromise preexisting filtering bleb. Combined surgery augmented with mitomycin C achieved a lower IOP than combined surgery alone but had a higher complication rate. In conclusion, the choice of the preferred surgical method should be determined according to the target pressure, the amount of glaucomatous damage, and the grade of visual disturbance caused by the cataract. Phacotrabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C offers visual improvement and achieves the best IOP lowering of all types of combined glaucoma and cataract surgery currently used but is associated with potentially sight-threatening complications.
Original Articles
Demands for Health Education through Internet in Middle and High School Students.
Pock Soo Kang, Yeun Hwa Choi, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):23-39.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.23
  • 1,618 View
  • 2 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is important to provide health education to students to ensure a healthy life. Using the internet for health education may be a way to overcome the practical barriers to health education such as time and content. This study was conducted to investigate the demands for health education using the internet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundreds and twenty-four and male female students in middle and high schools, who lived on Gyeongju-si and Seongju-gun in Gyeongsangbuk-do province, were interviewed by means of structured questionnaires, from March 5 to March 28, 2003. RESULTS: More than 90% of the subjects had their own computers, and nearly 38% of those possessing their own computers had accessed internet sites related to health and medicine. Middle school students and in particular, female students were more desirous for health education through e-mail. Regarding content, the three major topics which the respondents wanted to learn about were healthy lifestyles, growth and development, and disease prevention. In terms of the interval for providing educational materials, over half of the students wanted information once a week. Most of the students wanted to have the quantity of the material be one page. In addition, there were numerous additional topics requested by the students such as sleep and health, contraception and family planning, safety education, cancer prevention, emotional instability of juveniles, the utilization of medical care facilities, stress management, etc. CONCLUSION: The students had a desire for health education through the use of e-mail, and methods and materials should be developed for appropriate health education using the internet.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Knowledge, Attitude, and Intention of High School Girls in Korea
    Hee Sun Kang
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2009; 15(4): 336.     CrossRef
The Measurement of Size of the Pedicle Using 3 Dimensional Reconstruction Image in Idiopathic Scoliosis.
Jae Hee Heo, Myun Hwan Ahn
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):40-50.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.40
  • 1,325 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
This study was conducted to analyze the height and width of the pedicle of the upper and lower levels on the concave and the convex sides. In addition, we checked for the appropriate pedicle screw size which could be screwed in without complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Taking a simple AP radiography in a standing position, 99 vertebrae on the major curve with the possibility of 3-D reconstruction were analyzed after checking the CT in a supine position of 22 idiopathic scoliosis. We measured Cobb's angle from a simple radiograph, and measured the size of the isthmus by the Inner Space 3-D Editor after 3-D reconstruction with the Inner Space 3-D program in the DICOM file transformed from CT image. We then analyzed the size of pedicles of the upper and lower levels on the concave and the convex sides by measuring the height and width of the pedicle. RESULTS: All pedicles on the concave side were smaller than those on the convex side. Their size increased as the measurement moved from the upper to lower vertebra, except for the upper thoracic vertebra. When the width of the pedicle through 3-D reconstruction was compared with the narrowest width of the pedicle measured by using CT, the width of the pedicles through 3-D reconstruction was statistically smaller (P< 0.01). Most of the pedicles were tear-drop or kidney shaped rather than cylindrical. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the use of the coronal plane through 3-D reconstruction would be necessary for an accurate measurement of the size of the pedicle. It is important to pay careful attention to the screw size and the screwing method considering the pedicle shape through 3-D reconstruction.
The Relationship between Chewing Ability and Health Status in the Urban Elderly who Resides in the House.
Yoon Ho Bae, Hee Kyung Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):51-59.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.51
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  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between chewing ability and health status in order to provide basic information for the development of program which may lead to an improvement of a the elderly health status in urban areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were 128 elderly urban female over the age of 65 who reside at house. The data were collected from May 21 to August 20, 2001, through questionnaires about nutrient intake status, direct measurement of anthropometrics, and oral examinations. RESULTS: In terms of remaining teeth, there was significant negative relationship between age and number of remained teeth. The average number of remained teeth our subjects was 13.1 10.6. About sixty five percent of the subjects were denture users (partial or full dentures) and there was positive relationship between age and the percentage of denture user. There was a significant negative correlation between age and chewing ability. The group that was able to chew had more remained teeth than the other group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is strong positive relationship between chewing ability (remaining teeth) and elderly health status in urban areas, and the importance of preserving original teeth to improve the elderly health status in the public health program.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The analysis of dental treatments among the disabled in a charity dental clinic, Cheongju city
    Jae-In Ryu, Hye-Ri Jeong
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2022; 46(2): 78.     CrossRef
  • Difference in food and nutrient intakes in Korean elderly people according to chewing difficulty: using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 (6th)
    Song Hee Kwon, Hae Ryun Park, Young Mi Lee, Soo Youn Kwon, Ok Sun Kim, Hee Young Kim, Young Suk Lim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2017; 11(2): 139.     CrossRef
  • The Relationships between Stress and ADL in Elderly Living Alone
    Eun-Joo Seo, Nam-Hyun Cha
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2016; 14(7): 251.     CrossRef
  • Oral health status and care needs of elderly patients in long-term care hospital
    Ju-Hyun Lee, Tae-Yoon Hwang
    Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene.2015; 15(3): 411.     CrossRef
  • Influencing factors on anxiety and depression before and after dental prosthetic treatment in the patients
    Sun-Hwa Kwon, Han-Gon Kim
    Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene.2015; 15(5): 777.     CrossRef
  • Oral health of the elderly people receiving nursing care and home care serivces in Chungnam
    Hee-kyung Jang, Eun Mi Choi, Boo-Soon Son
    Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene.2015; 15(4): 565.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of the dietary intake of Korean elderly by chewing ability using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010
    Ji Eun Park, Hee Jung An, Sung Ug Jung, Yoonna Lee, Cho-il Kim, Young Ai Jang
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2013; 46(3): 285.     CrossRef
The Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence of The Women in Daegu.
Sung Chul Park, Min Whan Koh, Tae Hyung Lee, Hyeon Sook Youn
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):60-66.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.60
  • 1,737 View
  • 1 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its correlation to the underlying diseases of women in Daegu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary incontinence questionnaire regarding age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, menopausal status, history of hormonal replacement therapy, abortion history, and any underlying diseases were administered from May to November, 2001 to 412 women over 20 who had been randomly selected from the Outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Yeungnam University. The clinical characteristics of women who experience, and those who do not experience urinary incontinence were compared by means of the Student's t-test for continuous variables and by the Pearson's Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the urinary incontinent group (N=193) was 44.2 years. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of incontinence with the increase of age (p=0.000). The prevalence of urinary incontinence was significantly related to the number of deliveries and the mode of delivery (p=0.007, p=0.001) No significant relationship was demonstrated between urinary incontinence and BMI (body mass index) ; the number of abortions; hormonal status; or any underlying diseases such as thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic respiratory disease. Also, most of the urinary incontinent women didn't recognize their incontinence as pathological and consequently, didn't consult a physician. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the prevalence of urinary incontinence is significantly correlated to age, parity, and the mode of delivery. Most of the middle-aged women who suffered from urinary incontinence didn't recognize their incontinence a pathological. Those results suggest that women in this age group need more information and more education about urinary incontinence.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Knowledge and Attitudes About Urinary Incontinence Among Community-Dwelling Korean American Women
    Youngmi Kang
    Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing.2009; 36(2): 194.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence Rate and Associated Factors of Urinary Incontinence among Nursing Home Residents
    Moon-Sil Kim, Seung-Hee Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2008; 38(1): 92.     CrossRef
  • Social and Cultural Construction of Urinary Incontinence among Korean American Elderly Women
    Youngmi Kang, Neva L. Crogan
    Geriatric Nursing.2008; 29(2): 105.     CrossRef
Clinical Outcome of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in the Pediatric and Adult Population.
Phill Hyun Song, Sang Taek Kwon, Ji Hyun Yeo, Yong Hoon Park, Ki Hak Moon
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):67-73.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.67
  • 1,492 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is a congenital anomaly commonly afflicting the pediatric population. However, it occurs more frequently in adults than is generally appreciated. To assess their characteristics, we have here compared and analyzed the clinical manifestations, causes, and outcomes of UPJ obstruction found in children and adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 102 patients (118 renal units) out of 182 patients (218 renal units), with diagnosed UPJ obstruction, were available for follow up. The follow-ups were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presenting symptoms, treatments, and clinical outcomes. Patients who were younger than 18 years of age were assigned to the pediatric group (44 patients), others the adult group (58 patents). RESULTS: The majority of the patients presented with flank pain (pediatric group: 68%, adult group: 76%). The majority of patients underwent a pyeloplasty (pediatric group: 50.9%, adult group: 62.3%). And the major cause of the UPJ obstruction was an intrinsic stenosis (pediatric group: 53%, adult group: 56%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of bilateral UPJ obstruction in adults is evidently less prevalent than in pediatrics, and despite the late diagnosis, the surgical outcome is similar. A further investigation of UPJ obstruction will lead us to a more comprehensive understanding of the disease.
Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in Immunocompetent Patients: CT Findings.
Jae Kyo Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):74-81.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.74
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT scans of 25 patients with biopsy-proven cryptococcosis [surgery (n=3), percutaneous needle biopsy (n=21), and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=1) ] were analyzed. Thirteen patients were men and 12 patients were women, with a mean age of 53.7 years. Presenting symptoms were cough, sputum, and dyspnea and 12 patients presented with incidentally found chest radiographic abnormalities. RESULTS: Nodule or multiple conglomerate nodules (n=10, 40%) and segmental or lobular consolidation (n=9, 36%) were most common, followed by mixed patterns (n=5, 20%). Predilection sites were lower lobe (n=21/37, 57%) and subpleural areas (n=23, 92%). Air bronchograms within consolidations (n=11/14, 79%) with mild volume loss (n=10/14, 71%) were common. While interlobular septal thickening (n=11, 44%) and cavitation or central low-attenuations (n=11, 44%) were relatively common, lymphadenopathy (n=2, 8%) or free pleural effusions (n=1, 4%) were uncommon. CONCLUSION: Nodules or airspace consolidation with a predilection of lower lobe and subpleural area are the most common appearances of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients.
The Effect of Gabapentin for the Clinical Symptoms in the Traumatic Neuropathic Pain.
Yeung Ki Kim, Yun Woo Cho
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):82-90.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.82
  • 1,457 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Gabapentin is widely used for the relief of neuropathic pain. But, there is no study of gabapentin in relation to traumatic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of gabapentin for the various clinical symptoms of traumatic neuropathic pain MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients with traumatic nerve injury were assigned to receive gabapentin, titrated to 900 mg/day over 9 days, followed by further increases to a maximum of 2400 mg/day. Continuous pain, paroxysmal pain, allodynia and thermal evoked pain were measured in mean daily pain scores, based on the 11-point Likert scale. The primary efficacy parameter was compared from the baseline to the final study week. RESULTS: Over the 4.5 week study, this pain score decreased by 2.6 points in the continuous pain, 3.6 points in the paroxysmal pain, 3.1 points in the allodynia, and 2.5 points in the thermal evoked pain. The percentage of patients with over 50% improvement in pain scores was 33% in the continuous pain, 67% in the paroxysmal pain, 53% in the allodynia and 36% in the thermal evoked pain. There was no significant correlation between the effect of gabapentin and the time difference of the onset of symptoms and start of medication. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that gabapentin reduced neuropathic pain in patients with traumatic peripheral nerve injury. Among the various characteristics of neuropathic pain, the reduction of paroxysmal pain and allodynia was greatest.
Case Reports
A Case of Wernicke's Encephalopathy Associated with Hyperemesis Gravidarum.
Seung Hyun Lee, Se Jin Lee, Yun Kyung Lee, Jung Sang Ha, Jun Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):91-95.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.91
  • 1,701 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute-onset illness characterized by mental confusion, ataxia and ophthalmoplegia due to a thiamine deficiency. Immediate administration of thiamine prevents progression of the disease and reverses brain lesions. We have experienced a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. As Wernicke's encephalopathy is mostly associated with chronic alcoholism, the possibility of Wernicke's encephalopathy may be ignored in young women. We emphasize the need for thiamine supplementation in the patient requiring intravenous alimentation such as hyperemesis gravidarum.
Neuro-Behcet's Disease Presented with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Case Report.
Yun Kyung Lee, Mee Young Park, Seung Hyun Lee, Sung Gyun Joo, Yong Kook Cho
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):96-100.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.96
  • 1,612 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Behcet's disease is a chronic, relapsing multisystem disorder, that may develop into variable neurological manifestations. They include vascular and parenchymal involvement. Vascular involvement is dominated by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis marked by benign intracranial hypertension. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis can present with all the classical criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension, including normal brain CT findings with normal CSF content. But brain MRI is a useful diagnostic method in this situation to confirm the presence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We experienced a case of raised intracranial pressure in a 21-year-old man, caused by cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We disclosed his symptoms and signs thus fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for Behcet's disease.
A Case of Microscopic Polyangiitis with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.
Sang Jin Lee, Jae Woung Lee, Hye Jin Kim, Kyeong Cheol Shin, Jin Hong Chung, Kwan Ho Lee, Hye Jung Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):101-107.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.101
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare but serious and frequently life-threatening complication of a variety of conditions. The first goal in the management of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is to achieve or preserve stability of the respiratory status. Subsequently, the differential diagnosis is aimed at the identification of a remediable cause of the alveolar hemorrhage. The most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with glomerulonephritis are microscopic polyangiitis and Wegener's granulomatosis, followed by Goodpasture syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a distinct systemic small vessle vasculitis affecting small sized vessels with few or no immune deposits and with no granulomatosus inflammation. The disease may involve multiple organs such as kidney, lung, skin, joint, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, eye, and nervous system. MPA is strongly associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) that is a useful serological diagnostic marker for the most common form of necrotizing vasculitis. Our report concerns a case of microscopic polyangiitis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a 54-year-old man. He was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea upon exertion and recurrent hemoptysis. Laboratory findings showed hematuria, proteinuria and deterioration of renal function. In the chest CT scan, diffuse ground glass appearance was seen in both lower lungs. A lung biopsy revealed small vessel vasculitis with intraalveolar hemorrhage and showed a positive reaction to against perinuclear ANCA. The patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Chest infiltration decreased and hemoptysis and hypoxia improved. He is still being followed up in our hospital with a low dose of prednisolone.
Laparoscopic Extirpation of the Term Sized Huge Ovarian Cyst.
Min Whan Koh, Hyun Cheol Choo, Oh Jin Kwon, Jeong Sook Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):108-113.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.108
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 23 years old single nulligravida woman underwent laparoscopic removal of a huge cystic adnexal mass that occupied her entire abdomen, giving the appearance of a full term pregnancy. After anesthesia, a vertical infra-umbilical incision, 1 cm long, was made and a telescope was introduced through the port to determine the status of the intra-abdomen and the surface contour of the mass. A needle tipped with a laparoscopic suction apparatus was inserted into the cyst through the infra-umbilical port, directly under the mass. Subsequently, 3, 200 ml of cystic fluid was aspirated without spillage. A huge cyst, reaching to the level of the xyphoid process was effectively excised through the operative laparoscopy after prelaparoscopic drainage. Operation time was 140 minutes and hospital stay was 2 days. There were no complications during hospital stay and after discharge. It seems the size of the cyst is not a criteria for the contraindication of laparoscopic surgery.
Acute Postoperative Pulmonary Edema without Reasonable Causes: A Case Report.
Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyung Jun Lim, Sung Min Lee, Dae Lim Jee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):114-119.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.114
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This report concerns an unusual case of acute postoperative pulmonary edema without any apparent causes in a 45-year-old man. The patient was subjected to the removal of a previously placed device on the left tibia, and the excision of a benign mass on the right forearm. Unexpected acute bilateral pulmonary edema occurred immediately after the completion of the procedures. The etiologies were reviewed in relation to the patient's condition and clinical manifestations. Fluid overloading was excluded as a cause in view of the patient's perioperative state and postoperative chest X-ray results. We could not find any symptoms of upper airway obstruction during emergence from general anesthesia. We had doubts about tourniquet or fentanyl-induced pulmonary edema, but these factors were not sufficient to bring about pulmonary edema in this case. To our knowledge, the cause of acute pulmonary edema in this case is indeterminate.
Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma.
Yong Dae Kim, Dong Suk Kwak, Hyung Joong Lee, Jae Heun Sin, Chang Hoon Bai, Si Yeon Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):120-126.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.120
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma (SNUC) is a very rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. SNUC tends to present with advanced-stage disease, often with intracranial invasion. It requires an aggressive multimodality therapy that includes surgical resection. A cure rate of less than 20% is generally reported in the literature, with most patients dying within 1 year of onset of the disease. Three patients diagnosed as SNUC were treated at the Yeungnam University Medical Center between the years 2000 and 2003 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients presented with the disease very advanced. The three cases were given chemotherapy or chemotherapy with radiotherapy. Two patients died of the disease, surviving only 6 and 11 months following treatment, respectively. We did a follow-up on just the one remaining case with incomplete controlled disease for 27 months. The overall prognosis of SNUC is very poor. We consider that more intensive multimodality therapies are recommended for all patients with SNUC.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science