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Sun Ok Song 17 Articles
Comparison of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block at 6th and 7th cervical vertebrae using the lateral paracarotid out-of-plane approach for sympathetic blockade in the upper extremity
Jongyoon Baek, Bum Soo Kim, Hwarim Yu, Hyuckgoo Kim, Chaeseok Lim, Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2018;35(2):199-204.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2018.35.2.199
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The authors have performed ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block (SGB) in our clinic using a lateral paracarotid approach at the level of the 6th cervical vertebra (C6). Although SGB at C6 is a convenient and safe method, there are ongoing concerns about the weak effect of sympathetic blockade in the ipsilateral upper extremity. Therefore, ultrasound-guided SGB was attempted using a lateral paracarotid approach at the level of the 7th cervical vertebra (C7). This prospective study aimed to compare changes in skin temperature after SGB was performed at C6 and C7, and to introduce a lateral paracarotid approach for SGB.
Methods
Thirty patients underwent SGB twice: once at C6 and once at C7. For every SGB, the skin temperature of the patient’s hypothenar area was measured for 15 min at 1-min intervals. Skin temperatures before and after SGB and side effects were compared between C6 and C7 groups.
Results
The temperature of the upper extremity increased after SGB was performed at C6 and C7. There were significant differences between mean pre-SGB and the largest increases in post-SGB temperatures (0.50±0.38℃ and 1.41±0.68℃ at C6 and C7, respectively; p<0.05). Significantly increased post-SGB temperatures (difference >1℃) were found in 5/30 (16.7%) and 24/30 (80%) cases for C6 and C7, respectively (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in side effects between SGB performed at C6 or C7 (p>0.05).
Conclusion
The lateral paracarotid approach using out-of-plane needle insertion for ultrasound-guided SGB performed at C7 was feasible and more effective at elevating skin temperature in the upper extremity than SGB at C6.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The usefulness of stellate ganglion block with ultrasound-guided lateral paracarotid approach in ventricular arrhythmias: A case series
    Hansung Ryu, Hyuckgoo Kim
    Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia.2024; 18(2): 276.     CrossRef
  • Establishment of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block in rats
    Shi-zhu Lin, Lu Chen, Yi-jie Tang, Cheng-jie Zheng, Peng Ke, Meng-nan Chen, Hai-xing Wu, Yu Chen, Liang-cheng Qiu, Xiao-dan Wu, Kai Zeng
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Magnetic resonance imaging validation of medial transthyroid ultrasound‐guided stellate ganglion block: A pilot study
    Boo Young Chung, Christian Holfelder, Robert E. Feldmann, Dieter Kleinboehl, Raoul C. Raum, Justus Benrath
    Pain Practice.2022; 22(3): 329.     CrossRef
  • Prolonged blockade of the cervical sympathetic nerve by stellate ganglion block accelerates therapeutic efficacy in trigeminal neuropathy
    Kazune Kawabata, Teppei Sago, Tsuneto Oowatari, Shunji Shiiba
    Journal of Oral Science.2022; 64(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • Comment on an Article by Aleanakian et al. Titled “Effectiveness, Safety, and Predictive Potential in Ultrasound‐Guided Stellate Ganglion Blockades (SGB) for the Treatment of Sympathetically Maintained Pain”
    Pratibha Singh, Anil Agarwal, Chetna Shamshery
    Pain Practice.2021; 21(5): 602.     CrossRef
Attenuation of pneumoperitoneum-induced hypertension by intra-peritoneal lidocaine before pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Sun Ok Song, Hae Mi Lee, Sung Soo Yun, Hwarim Yu, Soo Young Shim, Heung Dae Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(2):90-97.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2016.33.2.90
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We have previously found that intra-peritoneal lidocaine instillation before pneumoperitoneum attenuates pneumoperitoneum-induced hypertension. Whether this procedure alters patient's hemodynamic status during operation should be determined for clinical application. This study elucidated the possible mechanism of the attenuation of the pneumoperitoneum-induced hypertension by intra-peritoneal lidocaine before pneumoperitoneum. METHODS: Thirty-four patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were randomly allocated into two groups. After induction of general anesthesia, 200 mL of 0.2% lidocaine (lidocaine group, n=17), or normal saline (control group, n=17) were sub-diaphragmatically instilled 10 minutes before pneumoperitoneum. The changes in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance were compared between the groups. The number of analgesics used during post-operative 24 h was compared. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure was elevated during pneumoperitoneum in both groups (p<0.01), but the degree of elevation was significantly reduced in the lidocaine group than in the control (p<0.01). However, stroke volume and cardiac output were decreased and systemic vascular resistance was increased after induction of pneumoperitoneum (p<0.05) without statistical difference between two groups. The number of analgesics used was significantly reduced in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that intra-peritoneal lidocaine before pneumoperitoneum does not alter patient's hemodynamics, and attenuation of pneumoperitoneum-induced hypertension may be the consequence of reduced intra-abdominal pain rather than the decrease of cardiac output during pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, intra-peritoneal lidocaine instillation before pneumoperitoneum is a useful method to manage an intraoperative pneumoperitoneum-induced hypertension and to control postoperative pain without severe detrimental hemodynamic effects.
Anesthesia for Cesarean Section in a Parturient with Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report.
Sae Yeon Kim, Su Jeong Heo, Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2010;27(1):52-56.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2010.27.1.52
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Idiopathic peripartum cardiomyopathy is an uncommon malady disease. Making the diagnosis is often difficult and it is always necessary to exclude other prior heart disease and other causes of left ventricular dysfunction in pregnant women. Heart failure in these women ensues when the cardiovascular demands of normal pregnancy are further amplified when the common complications of pregnancy complications superimposed upon these underlying conditions that cause compensated ventricular hypertrophy. This may be aggravated by making a late diagnosis and providing inappropriate treatment. We experienced a 38-year-primigravida who has diagnosed with idiopathic peripartum cardiomyopathy and underwent elective cesarean section with general anesthesia.
Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Alexander's Disease: Case Report.
Bum Soo Kim, Dae Lim Jee, Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2010;27(1):47-51.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2010.27.1.47
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We present here the case of a 13-year-old male patient with Alexander's disease who underwent surgical correction of a femur fracture. Alexander's disease is a rare and fatal disorder that affects the white matter in the brain and it causes developmental delay, psychomotor regression, spasticity, megaloencephaly and seizure. The patient had the possibility of a seizure attack during the perioperative period. We discuss the anesthetic management of a patient with Alexander's disease and we review the relevant literature.
Delayed Complications of Regional Anesthesia
Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2 Suppl):S96-107.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2S.S96
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Regional anesthesia, an attractive choice of anesthesia for the patients with systemic illness such as pulmonary/heart diseases or endocrine dysfunctions, is generally accepted as a safe anesthetic method. However, there are various kinds of complication annoying the physician and the patient following a regional anesthesia. Therefore, physicians and patients must understand the risks in addition to the benefits of regional anesthesia to make an informed consent of anesthetic technique. 1) This review will give an overview of delayed complications following a regional anesthesia.
Ketamine : Refocused Role of Ketamine in Pain Management
Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2 Suppl):S108-117.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2S.S108
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ketamine has used as a dissociative anesthetics from 40 years ago. Its mechanism of action is an antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which has an important role into the central sensitization during pain states. The role of ketamine, in lower sub-anesthetic doses, has recently gained increasing interest in pain management. There are considerable numbers of trials to use ketamine in acute or chronic pain states. Recently, Hocking et al. summarized their recent reviews of the evidence concerning ketamine’s clinical use on PAIN: Clinical Updates. In this review, the author introduce their summery with personal experience. Based on their summary, the primary role of ketamine in such subanesthetic doses is as an ‘anti-hyperalgesic’, ‘anti-allodynic’ or ‘tolerance-protective’ agent rather than as a primarily ‘analgesic’. However, to support the evidence-based clinical guideline using a ketamine in pain management, there will be needed numerous high-quality studies that access both immediate and long-term outcomes.
Treatment of Atelectasis Dectected in the Recovery Room after General Anesthesia
Chang jae Hwang, Heung dae Kim, Dae pal Park, Il suk Seo, Sun ok Song, Sae yeon Kim, Dae lim Jee, Deok hee Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2 Suppl):S696-701.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2S.S696
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Atelectasis is a relatively common complication following surgery in anesthetized patient with respiratory symptoms, but rarely occur in normal healthy patient. Anesthesiologists must be wary to prevent atelectasis, because it may lead to hypoxia during and after the operation. This case reports a healthy patient without previous respiratory symptoms who developed left lower lobar atelectasis after general anesthesia. Vigorous chest physiotherapy including intended coughing, deep breathing, chest percussion and vibration under postural change was effective. Therefore, vigorous chest physiotherapy is essential part of early treatment modalities for atelectasis in postoperative recovery room.
Subcutaneous Emphysema and Inflammation of the Neck after Tracheal Puncture by an Intubating Stylet.
Gul Jung, Woo Mok Byun, Hyung Jun Lim, Jong Gyun Kim, Dong Min Kwak, Deok Hee Lee, Sae Yeon Kim, Sun Ok Song, Il Sook Seo, Dae Lim Jee, Heung Dae Kim, Dae Pal Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):344-344.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2.344
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Laryngo-tracheal perforation caused by the use of a stylet during tracheal intubation is a rare complication. We present a case of subcutaneous emphysema and connective tissue inflammation after tracheal intubation. The patient was a 41-year-old male undergoing general anesthesia for an appendectomy. The intubation was difficult during laryngoscopy (Cormack-Lehane Grade III). An assistant provided an endotracheal tube with a stylet inside while the laryngoscope was in place. During intubation, a short, dull sound was heard with a sudden loss of resistance after the distal tip of the endotracheal tube passed the rima glottis. A sonogram and computerized tomography revealed subcutaneous emphysema from the neck to the upper mediastinum and fluid collection between the trachea and the thyroid. This lesion appeared to have been caused by the protruded, loose stylet. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the damage a loose stylet protruding beyond the tip of the endotracheal tube can cause.
Risk Factors of Acute Renal Failure after Colorectal Surgery.
Hae Mi Lee, Chang Jae Hwang, Jaehwang Kim, Heung Dae Kim, Dae Pal Park, Il Suk Seo, Sun Ok Song, Sae Yeon Kim, Deuk Hee Lee, Daelim Jee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):275-286.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2.275
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Acute renal failure is one of the leading causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors that are associated with acute renal failure after colorectal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred seventy patients who operated colorectal surgery at the Yeungnam University Medical Center over three years from 2004 to 2006 were enrolled in this study. The effects of gender, age, ASA classification, concomitant disease, surgery type and duration, reoperation, urogenital manipulation, medication, hypotension, hypovolemia, transfusion, and postoperative ventilatory care on the occurrence of acute renal failure after colorectal surgery were studied. RESULTS: The major risk factors of acute renal failure after colorectal surgery were age of patients (P=0.003), ASA classification (P<0.001), concomitant disease (P<0.001), duration of the time surgery (P=0.034), reoperation (P=0.001), use of intraoperative diuretics (P=0.005), use of postoperative diuretics (P<0.001), intraoperative hypotension (P=0.018), intraoperative transfusion (P<0.001), postoperative transfusion (P<0.001), and postoperative ventilatory care (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Multiple factors cause synergistic effects on the development of acute renal failure after colorectal surgery. Therefore, efforts to reduce the risk factors associated with acute renal failure are needed. In addition, intensive postoperative care should be provided to all patients.
Memory of Pain and Preemptive Analgesia.
Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2000;17(1):12-20.   Published online June 30, 2000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2000.17.1.12
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The memory of pain can be more damaging than its initial experience. Several factors are related the directions of pain memory; current pain intensity, emotion, expectation of pain, and peak intensity of previous pain. The possible mechanisms of memory of pain are neuroplastic changes of nervous system via peripheral and central sensitization. Peripheral sensitization is induced by neurohumoral alterations at the site of injury and nearby. Biochemicals such as K+, prostaglandins, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and serotonin, increase transduction and produce continuous nociceptive input. Central sensitization takes place within the dorsal horn of spinal cord and amplifies the nociceptive input from the periphery. The mechanisms of central sensitization involve a variety of transmitters and postsynaptic mechanisms resulting from the activations of NMDA receptors by glutamate, and activation of NK-1 tachykinnin receptors by substance-P and neurokinnin. The clinical result of peripheral and central sensitization is hyperalgesia, allodynia, spontaneous pain, referred pain, or sympathetically maintained pain. These persistent sensory responses to noxious stimuli are a form of memory. The hypothesis of preemptive analgesia is that analgesia administered before the painful stimulus will prevent or reduce subsequent pain and analgesic requirements in comparison to the identical analgesic intervention administered after the painful stimulus, by preventing or reducing the memory of pain in the nervous system. Conventionally, pain management was initiated following noxious stimuli such as surgery. More recently, many have endorsed preemptive analgesia initiated before surgery. Treatments to control postsurgical pain are often best started before injury activates peripheral nociceptors and triggers central sensitization. Such preemption is not achieved solely by regional anesthesia and drug therapy but also requires behavioral interventions to decrease anxiety or stress. Although the benefit of preemptive analgesia is not obvious in every circumstance, and in many cases may not sufficient to abolish central sensitization, it is an appropriate and human goal of clinical practice.
Changes of Blood Gases, Plasma Catecholamine Concentrations and Hemodynamic Data in Anesthetized Dogs during Graded Hypoxia Induced by Nitrous Oxide.
Sae Yeon Kim, Sun Ok Song, Jung In Bae, Jae Kyu Cheun, Jae Hoon Bae
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1998;15(1):97-113.   Published online June 30, 1998
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1998.15.1.97
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The sympathoadrenal system plays an important role in homeostasis in widely varing external environments. Conflicting findings, however, have been reported on its response to hypoxia. We investigated the effect of hypoxia an the sympathoadrenal system in dogs under halothane anesthesia by measuring levels of circulating catecholamines in response to graded hypoxia. Ten healthy mongreal dogs were mechanically ventilated with different hypoxic gas mixtures. Graded hypoxia and reoxygenation were induced by progressively decreasing the oxygen fraction in the inhalation gas mixture from 21%(control) to 15%, 10% and 5% at every 5 minutes, and then reoxygenated with 60% oxygen. Mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were measured directly using pressure transducers. Cardiac output was measured by the thermodilutional method. For analysis of blood gas, saturation and content, arterial and mixed venous blood were sampled via the femoral and pulmonary artery at the end of each hypoxic condition. The concentration of plasma catecholamines was determined by radioenzymatic assay. According to the exposure of graded hypoxia, not only did arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension decreased markedly at 10% and 5% oxygen, but also arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased significantly. An increased trend of the oxygen extraction ratio was seen during graded hypoxia. Cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance were unchanged or increased slightly. Pulmonary arterial pressure(PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR) were increased by 55%, 76% in 10% oxygen and by 82%, 95% in 5% oxygen, respectively(p<0.01). The concentrations of plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine increased by 75%, 29%, 24% in 15% oxygen and by 382%, 350%, 49% in 5% oxygen. These data suggest that the sympathetic nervous system was activated to maintain homeostasis by modifying blood flow distribution to improve oxygen delivery to tissues by hypoxia, but hemodynamic changes might be blunted by high concentration of nitrous oxide except PAP and PVR. It would be suggested that hemodynamic changes might not be sensitive index during hypoxia induced by high concentration of nitrous oxide exposure.
Thiopental Prevents A Beta-Endorphin Response to Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
Sun Ok Song, Daniel B Carr, Dae Pal Park, Dae Lim Jee, Sae Yeon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1997;14(2):350-358.   Published online December 31, 1997
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1997.14.2.350
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Spinal Anesthesia for Lower Extremities : Comparison of Plain 0.5% Bupivacaine and Hyperbaric 0.5% Tetracaine.
Sun Ok Song, Bon Up Koo
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(2):121-130.   Published online December 31, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.2.121
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Plain 0.5% bupivacaine and hyperbaric 0.5% tetracaine were compared for spinal anesthesia in 40 patients undergoing operation of lower extremities. Lumbar puncture was performed with a 22 gauge spinal needle with the patient in the lateral recumbent position. The third lumbar interspace was chosen for the puncture, when a free flow of clear CSF was obtained, the local anesthetic solution (2.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine or 2.0 ml of hyperbaric 0.5% tetracaine) was injected at a rate of 0.1ml/sec without barbotage. After injection of anesthetics, clinical features were observed and compared between the two groups. The results were as follows: 1. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, height and weight. 2. In both groups, sensory block to T₁₂ dermatome was obtained within 4 minutes, mean maximal level of analgesia was T₆₋₇, and the mean time for maximal level was around 20 minutes. 3. The onset times of motor block were similar in both groups and complete motor block was obtained in all cases within 20 minutes. 4. The duration of analgesia above the T₁₂ dermatome was 3 hours, postoperative analgesia was 7 hours. These value were significantly prolonged than those of the tetracaine group (p<0.05). 5. The changes in systolic pressure in the bupivacaine group were significantly less than those of the tetracaine group (p<0.05). 6. The complications after spinal anesthesia were headache, numbness, urinary retention and backpain, and were no significant difference in both groups. From the obtained results, we concluded that plain 0.5% bupivacaine was a relatively satisfactory agent for spinal anesthesia for operation of lower extremities. The time of onset, height of block and the complications of postoperative period were similar in both groups. The advantages of plain 0.5% bupivacaine were less hypotension and long duration of analgesia.
Interpretation of Blood Gas Analysis During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
Sun Ok Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(1):121-131.   Published online June 30, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.1.121
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The temperature-corrected values of blood gas analysis were compared to uncorrected values in 40 cases of open heart surgery under moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. The results were as follows. 1. The corrected value of pH was significantly higher than uncorrected value, and it's relationship was ΔpH=-0.015 ΔTemp+0.005 (r=0.81, P<0.01). 2. The corrected value of PCO₂ was lower than uncorrected value, and it's relationship was ΔPCO₂=1.11 ΔTemp+1.81 (r=0.50, P<0.01). 3. The corrected value of PO₂ was lower than uncorrected value, and it's relationship was ΔPO₂=5.21 ΔTemp-1.45 (r=0.32, P<0.01). But there was no clinical significance. 4. The corrected values of HCO₃-, base excess, CO₂ content and oxygen saturation were similar with uncorrected values. In summary, the values of pH and PCO₂ were significantly changed by temperature-correction. Because of the neutral point of water (pH=pOH) rise as temperature falls and it change in parallel with the changes in blood pH, a corrected pH of 7.4, PaCO₂ of 40 mmHg during deep hypothermia would reflect a profound respiratory acidosis. Therefore, the use of the uncorrected value at 37℃ is more preferable and valid means of assessing acid-base management regardless of actual patient temperature.
Extremity Amputation following Radial Artery Cannulation in Patient with Craniectomy.
Heung Dae Kim, Sun Ok Song, Kyeong Sook Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(1):145-149.   Published online August 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.1.145
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The technique of radial artery cannulation and its complications are well documented, but serious complications are rare. This is a report of one case of amputation of wrist due to finger necrosis developed from the radial artery cannulation in patient who had craniectomy surgery. This 52-year-old 79 kg male underwent subdural hematoma removal surgery. Right radial artery cannulation was carried out percutaneously using 22 gauge Teflon extracath needle after modified Allen's test appeared to be positive. It was intermittently flushed by heparinized solution. His arterial blood pressure was maintained 100/70-110/80 mmHg and 5 units of banked whole blood and 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma were transfused during 8-hours operation. Cannula was removed on the 9th hour after operation because that was obstructed. On the 12th hour after removal of cannula, his right hand noted to be cool and cyanotic. So, warm towel and hot bag applied continuously on the right hand and the right stellate ganglion block was carried out every day for 4 times. However, on the 10th day after removal of cannula, necrotic change of all fingers of the right hand became worse and skin of fingers were shrunken. Therefore, disarticulation of the right wrist carried out on the 71th day of his hospitalization.
The Effect of Hypobaric Priming Solutions on Extracorporeal Circulation during Open Heart Surgery.
Sun Ok Song, Jung Kook Suh, Heung Dae Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):101-106.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.101
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Before beginning the extracorporeal circulation, perfusionists should supply oxygen into the oxygenator and establish blood flow through the blood line of the heart-lung machine. But these manipulation can induce severe hypocarbic state of priming solutions due to wash out of CO2 gas in the solution. This study was carried out to examine the relationship of blood gas changes between hypocarbic priming solutions and body circulation in 15 patients undergoing open heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation. PaCO₂, pH, buffer base and PaO2 were measured from priming solutions before and 15 minutes after the extracorporeal circulation. The results were as follows; 1) Before the extracorporeal circulation, mean PaCO₂ level was 12.1±7.8 mmHg in the priming solution. However, 15 minutes after extracorporeal circulation, the PaCO₂ level was maintained at 35.7±5.7 mmHg. 2) pH in the priming solution was variable from 6.93 to 7.99 (mean 7.45±0.29), but after 15 minutes it was ranged from 7.28 to 7.42 (mean 7.35±0.05). 3) Mean buffer base level in the priming solution was 7.9±3.5 mmol/l. but after 15 minutes, it was 19.6±1.2 mmol/l. 4) Mean PaO₂ level in the priming solution was 667.1±45.6 mmHg, but after 15 minutes, it was 280.7±131.7 mmHg.
Effects of Starvation and Perioperative Fluid Therapy on the Blood Glucose Concentrations during Anesthesia in Children.
Ill Sook Suh, Sun Ok Song, Dae Pal Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):89-93.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.89
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study included 38 children patients of less than 4 years old and 18 kg body weight. After 8 hours of starvation, the children were divided into 2 groups: Group I received Hartmann's solution and Group II received Hartmann's dextrose solution. In both groups, the rates of infusion were 10 ml/kg/hr before and during operation and blood samples were collected just before and 1 hr after induction of anesthesia, respectively. The results were as follows; 1) In the Group I, blood glucose concentration just before induction was decreased than control values that was checked at ward, and 1 hr value after induction was significantly increased then control values. 2) In the Group II, blood glucose concentration was increased just before and 1hr after induction than control values significantly respectively. 3) In the blood glucose concentration 1 hr after induction, difference between Group I and Group II was not significant. 4) In children, duration of starvation about 8 hrs did not significant influence on blood glucose concentration although dextrose was not administered.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science