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Kwang Youn Lee 16 Articles
Effect of Progesterone on COX-2 Expression and Proliferation of Prostate Stromal Cell.
Soo Ryun Jung, Sung Han Kim, E Hwa Choi, Ji Eun Park, Eun Mi Jeon, Young Jin Kang, Kwang Youn Lee, Hyoung Chul Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):62-70.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.62
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BACKGROUND
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in older men; the etiology of this disease remains poorly understood. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) both act as androgen via a single androgen receptor. Testosterone is converted to DHT by 5alpha-reductase in prostatic stromal cells. Progesterone has been reported to inhibit DHT conversion; howevwe, its effect on prostatic stromal cells remains to be elucidated. MATERILAS AND METHODS: In this experiment, we investigated the effect of progesterone on androgen receptor expression induced by DHT. We also tested the effect of progesterone on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, as well as prostate stromal cell proliferation using the cell count kit-8. RESULTS: Progesterone did not cause an increase of prostate stromal cell proliferation. The mRNA expression of the androgen receptor and COX-2 were not changed by progesterone; the expressions of androgen receptor and COX-2 proteins were decreased by progesterone in prostate stromal cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in prostate stromal cells, progesterone decreases androgen receptor protein expression, which results in decrement of COX-2 protein expression. This effect might be mediated by post-transcriptional regulation.
Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Vascular Reactivity and Alterations of Cyclooxygenase Expression.
Ki Young Lee, Jin Woo Park, Eun A Eum, Young Jin Kang, Kwang Youn Lee, Hyoung Chul Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):36-44.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.36
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BACKGROUND
There is controversy regarding whether COX-2 specific inhibitors are associated with elevation of blood pressure. We compared the effects of aspirin, indomethacin, and celecoxib for vascular reactivity induced by phenylephrine. We also tested the effects of indomethacin and NO donor on COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression, as well as nitrite production in culture medium of vascular smooth muscle cells. MATERILAS AND METHODS: In this experiment, we used the isometric tension study for vascular reactivity. After 45 minutes of pretreatment with aspirin, indomethacin, celecoxib, and phenylephrine induced contractions were tested. COX-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot and nitrite production by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Although celecoxib pretreatment caused enhanced arterial contraction, aspirin pretreatment induced more potent arterial contraction than celecoxib in the isometric tension study of rabbit femoral artery. COX-1 protein expression was unchanged by indomethacin, SNP and NOR-3; COX-2 protein expression was increased by the addition of indomethacin, SNP, and NOR-3. Especially, NOR-3, a NO donor, significantly increased COX-2 protein expression with unstimulated conditions as well as LPS stimulation. Induction of nitrite production was higher with NOR-3 treatment than SNP treatment with LPS stimulation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that aspirin caused more potent vascular contraction than celecoxib and indomethacin. COX-2 expression in VSMC depended on the types of NO donor and LPS stimulation.
Effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and Methylene Blue on the Endotoxin-induced Vascular Hyporesponsiveness.
Hyoung Chul Choi, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim, Uy Dong Sohn
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1997;14(2):337-349.   Published online December 31, 1997
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1997.14.2.337
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The study was undertaken to examine the intensity of involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway as one of the mechanisms of vaso-relaxative action of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the canine femoral artery strips. Canine femoral arteries were isolated and spiral strips of 10 mm long and 2 mm wide were made in the Tyroad solution of 0-4degrees C. The strips were prepared for isometric myography in Biancani's isolated muscle chamber contaning 1 ml of Tyrode solution, which was maintained with pH 7.4 by areation with 95% O2/5% CO2 at 37degrees C and nitric oxide (NO) production was measured simulltaneously with isolated nitric oxide mrter. LPS induced NO production, suppressed the phenylephrine (PE) induced contraction and enhanced the acetylcholine (ACh) induced relaxation. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an NOS inhibitor, methylene blue, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, potentiated PE induced contraction and suppressed ACh induced relaxation on the LPS treated strips. The inhibitory potency of methylene blue for LPS induced vascular hyporeponsiveness was stronger than that of L-NAME. These result suggest that in canine femoral artery, both iNOS and cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway are related with LPS indused vascular hyporeponsiveness, but in minor with iNOS and in major with cyclic GMP signal transduction pathway.
Nitric Oxide: The Pathophysiological Roles and Clinical Implications in Circulatory System.
Kwang Youn Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(2):159-172.   Published online December 31, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.2.159
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No abstract available.
Effect of Baclofen on the Cholinergic Nerve Stimulation in Isolated Rat Detrusor
Kwang Youn Lee, Keun Mi Lee, Eun Mee Choi, Hyoung Chul Choi, Jeoung Hee Ha, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(2):246-259.   Published online December 31, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.2.246
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This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of baclofen on the detrusor muscle isolated from rat. Rats (Sprague-Dawley) were sacrificed by decapitation and exsanguination. Horizontal muscle strips of 2 mm × 15 mm were prepared for isometric myography in isolated muscle chamber bubbled with 95% / 5%-OZ / CO2 at 371C, and the pH was maintained at 7.4. Detrusor strips contracted responding to the electrical field stimulation (EFS) by 2 Hz, 20 msec, monophasic square wave of 60 VDC. The initial peak of EFS-Induced contraction was tended to be suppresed by α,β-methylene-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (mATP), a partial agonist of purinergic receptor, and baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist (statistically nonsignificant). The late sustained contraction by EFS was suppressed significantly (p<0.05) by additions of atropine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist and baclofen. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate-induced contraction was completely abolished by mA TP but not by baclofen. In the presence of atropine, the subsequent addition of acetylcholine could not contract the muscle strips: but the addition of acetylcholine in the presence of baclofen evoked a contraction to a remarkable extent. These results suggest that in the condition of present study, the cholinergic innervation may play a more important role than the purinergic one, and baclofen suppresses the contractility of rat detrusor by the stimulation of the GABA receptors to inhibit the release of neurotransmitter from the cholinergic nerve ending
Effects of octreotide on the contractility of isolated rat vas deferens.
Sun Ae Jang, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):144-156.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.144
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This study was performed to investigate the effect of octreotide on the contractility of rat vas deferens. The -smooth muscle strips isolated from the prostatic portion were myographied in isolated organ bath. Electric -field stimulation (monophasic square wave, duration : 1. mSec, voltage : 50 V, frequency : 5 Hz or 30 Hz, train : 10 Sec) produced reproducible contraction. The contraction was composed of two component, first phasic component (FPC) and second tonicc component (STC).. These contractions were abolished by -tetrodotoxin (1 microM). Octreotide inhibited the field stimulation induced contractions both FPC and STC concentration- dependently. The FPC was decreased by a desentization of purinergic receptor by pretreatment of mATP, and the STC was decreased by pr,,creatment of reserpine (3 mg/kg, EP) 24 hours before experiments. Octreotide reduced the field stimulation induced contraction in the presence of mATP and of reserpinized muscle strips. The inhibitory effect of octreotide was more potent at 5 Hz than at 30 Hz. Octreotide did not affect basal ton and exogenous norepinephrine- or ATP-induced contraction. These results suggest that octreotide inhibit the contractility of the isolated rat vas deferens by inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters, both ATP and norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminal.
Inhibitory of γ-aminobutyric acid on the contractility of isolated rat vas deferens.
Ki Young Ahn, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(2):382-395.   Published online December 31, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.2.382
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GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system and produce sedative, antianxiety and muscle relaxing effects via GABA(A) receptor or GABA(B) receptor. Recently it is known that GABA is widely distributed throughout peripheral organs and may play a physiological role in certain organ. The vas deferens is innervated by species-difference. These study, therefore, was performed to investigate the mode and the mechanism of action of GABA on the norepinephrine-, ATP- and electric stimulation-induced contraction of vas deferens of rat. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The smooth muscle strips were isolated from the prostatic portion and were mounted in the isolated muscle bath. PSS in the bath was aerated with 95/5%-O₂/CO₂ at 33℃. Muscle tensions were measured by isometric tension transducer and were recorded by biological recording system. 1. GABA, muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist, and baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist inhibited the electric field stimulation (EFS, 0.2Hz, 1mSec, 80V, monophasic square wave)-induced contraction with a rank order of potency of GABA greater than baclofen greater than muscimol. 2. The inhibitory effect of GABA was antagonized by delta aminovaleric acid (DAVA), a GABA(B) antagonist, but not by bicuculline, a GABA(A) intagonist. 3. The inhibitory effect of baclofen was antagonized by DAVA, but the effect of muscimol was not antagonized by bicuculline. 4. Exogenous norepinephrine (NE) and ATP contracted muscle strip concentration dependently, but the effect of acetylcholine was negligible and GABA did not affect the NE-and ATP-induced contractions. 5. GABA, baclofen and muscimol did not affect basal tone, and GABA did not affect the NE-and ATP-induced contractions. 6. EFS-induced contraction was inclucling 2 distinctable components. The first phasic component was inhibited by beta gamma-methylene ATP (mATP), a desensitizing agent of APT receptor and the second tonic component was reduced by pretreatment of reserpine (3 mg/Kg, IP). 7. GABA inhibited the EFS-induced contraction of reserpinized strips, but not the mATP-treated strips. These results suggest that in the prostatic portion of the rat vas deferens, adrenergic and purinergic neurotransmissions are exist, and GABA inhibits the release of ATP via presynaptic GABA(B) receptor on the excitatory neurons.
Effect of diazepam on the oxytocin induced contraction of the isolated rat uterus.
Yoon Kee Park, Sung Ho Lee, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(2):359-381.   Published online December 31, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.2.359
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of diazepam on the spontaneous contraction and oxytocin induced contraction of the isolated rat uterus. Female rat (Sprague-Dawley) pretreated with oophorectomy and 4 days administration of estrogen. Weighing about 200 g, was sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the uteruses were isolated. A longitudinal muscle strip was placed in temperature controlled (37℃) muscle chamber containing Locke's solution and myographied isometrically. Diazepam inhibited the spontaneous contraction and oxytocin induced contraction of the isolated rat uterus in a concentration-dependent manner. GABA, muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist, bicuculline, a competitive GABA A receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, a non competitive GABA A receptor antagonist, baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, and delta-aminovaleric acid, a GABA B receptor antagonist, did not affect on the spontaneous and oxytocin induced contraction of the isolated rat uterus. The inhibitory actions of diazepam on the spontaneous and oxytocin induced contraction were not affected by all the GABA receptor agonists and antagonists, but exceptionally potentiated by bicuculline. This potentiation-effect by bicuculline was not antagonized by muscumol. In normal calcium PSS, addition of calcium restored the spontaneous contraction preinhibited by diazepam and recovered the contractile of oxtrocin preinhibited by diazepam. A23187, a calcium inophore, enhanced the restoration of both the spontaneous and oxytocin induced contraction by addition of calcium. In calcium-free PSS, diazepam suppressed the restoration of spontaneous motility by addition of calcium but allowed the recovery of spontaneous motility to a considerable extent. Diazepam could not inhibit some development of contractility by oxytocin in calcium-free PSS, but inhibited the increase in contractility by subsequent addition of calcium. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of diazepam on the rat uterine motility does not depend on or related to GABA receptors and that diazepam inhibits the extracellular calcium influx to suppress the spontaneous and oxytocin induced contractilities.
Existance of cholinergic and purinergic receptor on the detrusor muscle of rat urinary bladder.
Tae Su Choi, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):138-149.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.138
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This study was aimed at investigation of the stimulatory innervations on the rat urinary bladder. Detrusor muscle strips of 15 mm long were suspended in isolated muscle chambers containing 1 ml of PSS maintained at 37℃ and aerated with 95% O²/5% Co². Isometric myography was performed, and the results were as followings: Muscle strips showed “on-contraction” by electric field stimulation (EFS) frequency-dependently. The EFS-induced contraction was not affected by hexamethonium, a ganglion blocker, but abolished by tetrodotoxin, a nerve conduction blocker. Physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor enhanced the EFS-induced contraction which was inhibited by hemicholinium, an inhibitor of choline uptake at the cholinergic nerve ending. Such an EFS-induced contraction was antagonized by atropine only partially, and the atropine-resistant portion was completely abolished by the desensitization of purinergic receptors by prolonged incubating of the strips in the presence of high concentration of ATP. Bethanechol, a cholinergic agonist, elicited concentration-dependent contraction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a purinergic agonist, induced a weak but concentration-dependent contraction of short duration. Bethanechol-induced contraction was not affected by ATP-desensitization, and ATP-induced contraction was not affected by tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that there are at least two main stimulatory components of innervations in the detrusor muscle, cholinergic muscarinic and purinergic; and those receptors are independent each other.
Effect of GABA on the contratility of small intestine isolated from rat.
Joon Young Huh, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):95-105.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.95
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of GABA and related substances on the spontaneous contraction of rat small intestine. The rats (Sprague-Dawley), weighing 200-250g, were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the small intestine was isolated. Longitudinal muscle strips from duodenum, jejunum and ileum were suspended in Biancani's isolated muscle chambers and myographied isometrically. GABA and muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist relaxed the duodenum and jejunum significantly, but baclofen-induced relaxation in those muscle strips negligible. The effectiveness of GABA and muscimol in various regions were the greatest on duodenum, and greater on jejunum than on ileum The effect of GABA and muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline, a competitive GABA A receptor antagonist and picrotoxin, a noncompetitive GABA A receptor antagonist. Duodenal relaxation induced by GABA and muscimol was unaffected by hexamethonium, but was prevented by tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that GABA inhibit the contractility of smooth muscle with distinct regional difference of efficacy, and the site of inhibitory action is the GABA A receptor existing at the presynaptic membrane of postganglionic excitatory nerves.
The Effects of Diazepam on the Carbachol Induced Contraction of the Isolated Rat Ileum.
Jung Ok Kim, Oh Cheol Kwon, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):13-22.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.13
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To investigate the effect of diazepam on the contractility of the intestinal smooth muscle, longitudinal muscle strip isolated from rat ileum was prepared for myography in isolated organ bath. 1) Basal tone of ileal muscle was reduced by diazepam concentration-dependently. 2) Higher concentrations (30 and 100 microM) of diazepam inhibited (p<0.05, p<0.001) The carbachol-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner; but lower concentration of diazepam (10 microM) enhanced (p<0.05). 3) Histamine-induced contraction was inhibited by pretreatment with diazepam in a concentration-dependent manner. 4) Ca⁺⁺-induced tension recovery in calcium-free solution was inhibited in the presence of diazepam concentration-dependently. These results suggest diazepam reduces the contractility of the longitudinal muscle isolated from rat ileum via interference with influx of calcium into the muscle cells.
Effects of Strontium on Norepinephrine Induced Positive Inotropic Effect of Isolated Perfused Rat Hearts.
Oh Cheol Kwon, Kwang Youn Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(2):59-69.   Published online December 31, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.2.59
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of substitution of strontium for calcium on mechanical activity in isolated perfused spontaneously beating rat hearts. The mechanical activity of the hearts of Langendorff's preparation in conditions of low calcium and strontium-substitution for calcium was compared. The effect of norepinephrine and verapamil were also observed in those conditions. The results were as follows: 1. In low calcium, the mechanical activity of the heart preparation was significantly reduced, but when the equimolar strontium was substituted for the reduced calcium, the activity was kept at similar level to the normal condition. 2. When equimolar strontium was substituted for the total calcium in perfusate, the heart preparation stopped its beating, and it was not restored in spite of reperfusion with normal calcium perfusate. 3. Norepinephrine-induced positive inotropic effect was inhibited in low-calcium condition especially with low concentration of norepinephrine, but not in strontium-substitution for calcium. 4. Verapamil reduced the activity of the heart both in low-calcium and strontium-substitution as well as in normal calcium conditions. From above results, it was concluded that strontium served as a substitute of calcium in maintaining mechanical activity and in responsiveness to norepinephrine, and the influx of strontium through cell membrane is inhibited by verapamil as the influx of calcium.
Pancreatic polypeptide family-PP, NPY, PYY.
Kwang Youn Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(2):1-8.   Published online December 31, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.2.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Effect of Carbamazepine on the Ouabain-Induced Arrhythmia in Rabbits.
Eui Hong Kim, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):279-285.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.279
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Carbamazepine is a derivative of iminostilbene with carbamoyl group and related chemically to the tricyclic antidepressants. Carbamazepine has been introduced for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Recently it is used as an antiepileptic agent such as diphenylhydantoin. Antiepileptic drugs are known to affect experimentally induced cardiac arrhythmia and are now widely used clinically for treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, particularly those produced by digitalis intoxication. Steiner et al. (1970) reported that carbamazepine was found to be very effective in converting ventricular tachycardia due to digitalis toxicity to normal sinus rhythm. Clinically bradycardia, complete heart block, ventricular standstill and Adams-stokes attack were reported in the course of carbamazepine treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carbamazepine on the ouabain-induced arrhythmia in vivo. The rabbits of either sex, weighing from 1.6 to 3.2 kg were anesthetized by urethane. After the trachea was cannulated, the rabbits were ventilated with room air using a respirator. Drugs were given into polyethylene cannula in the femoral vein. Blood pressure were recorded by physiograph via pressure tranducer connected with the cannula in the femoral artery. EKG were recorded by physiograph via electrode implanted in both fore leg and left hind leg. The results are summarized as follows 1. Arrhythmia was induced by continuous infusion of ouabain (65±8.8 µg/kg). 2. Single administration of ouabain (64 µg/kg) induced arrhythmia which was persisted for 7-8 min. 3. Ouabain induced arrhythmia was restored to normal sinus rhythm by administration of carbamazepine (the more dosage, the less frequent and the longer duration). 4. Severe bradycardia, A-V block, atrial fibrillation were seen on the EKG after injection of carbamzepine alone. By the above results, it may be concluded that carbamzepine inhibits the ouabain-induced arrhythmia by dose-dependent.
Effect of Corticosteroids on Renal Excretion of Lithium.
Shin Yul Oh, Jeoung Hee Ha, Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):229-235.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.229
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Lithium salts are being used increasingly to treat patient with affective disorders, especially acute mania, or bipolar manic-depressive illness. For therapeutic effect the lithium content must be maintained at or above a particular level. Lithium poisoning due to overdosage may be seen occasionally, and its course is determined primarily by the rate of renal lithium elimination. A search is therefore indicated for procedures that could raise the lithium clearance. In a number of reports renal lithium excretion has been studied in relation to the excretion of water, sodium, potassium and hydrogen, but effects of sodium or water on the lithium excretion has not yet been clarified. Hence the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of corticosteroid on the excretion of lithium ion. The female rat (Sprague-Dowley), weighing from 200 to 300g, was injected with 50mg/kg of lithium chloride intraperitoneally, and then injected with graded dosage of fludrocortisones and dexamethasone in each group. During the injected rats were incubated in metabolic cage, 24 hour urine of rats were collected. At 24 hours after injection, the rats were sacrificed with guillotine, the blood were collected. And then the concentrations of Na⁺, K⁺, Li⁺ of collected urine and serum were checked by Flame photometer. The results are summarized as follows 1. Fludrocortisone decreased the serum concentration of lithium and increased the urinary excretion of lithium. 2. In the group treated with low dose of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg), the serum concentration of lithium was decreased and high dose of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) increased the urinary excretion of lithium. 3. Fludrocortisone increased the urinary [Na⁺]/[K⁺] in serum and decreased [Na⁺]/[K⁺] inurine, but opposite effects were occurred in dexamethasone. By above results, it may be concluded that corticosteroid increased the urinary excretion of lithium and decreased the serum concentration of lithium, but it seems to be there in no relationship between these effects of corticosteroid and of the renal Na⁺ or K⁺ transport.
Drugs Most Frequently used in OPD of Yeungnam University Hospital: March to August, 1985.
Kwang Youn Lee, Won Joon Kim, Sung Hoon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1985;2(1):95-102.   Published online December 31, 1985
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1985.2.1.95
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This report offers descriptive data about the drugs utilized in outpatient department (OPD) of Yeungnam University Hospital (YUH) in the period of March to August in 1985. The data in this report were produced by the computerized totalization of the number of mentions of individual drugs included in the prescriptions. The 100 drug entries that were most frequently recorded are listed in rank order. The listing is arbiturarily restricted to the drugs that were prescribed as single preparations, the drugs of basis of compound preparations and the drugs of adjuvant or corrective of compound preparations that have significant therapeutic effects either by generic names. And in addition, the listing also involves the compound preparations used in relatively large frequency, and the individual components of which have the unique pharmacological actions each other by proprietary names. And all routes of administrations were allowed. The 10 drugs most frequently named are diazepam, aluminum compounds, acetaminophen, isoniazid, metoclopramide, polaramine®, carboxymethylcystein, ephedrine, codeine and caroverine in order. The 521, 855 drug mentions listed as above are described by the chief therapeutic usage that each is intended to apply generally. The drugs which account the largest proportion of total mentions were those acting on the central nervous system (20.57%), including tranquillizers and sedative hypnotics (11.71%), analgesic antipyretics (5.55%), antidepressants (2.15%) etc. Gastrointestinal drugs and smooth muscle preparations (18.64%) included antacids and antiulcer drugs (9.24%), antiemetics (3.57%), spasmolytics (3.14%) and others. Respiratory drugs (16.11%) included expectorants and cough preparations (10.99%) and bronchodilators (5.12%). Chemotherapeutic agents (15.12%) included the antiTbc drugs (7.09%) most frequently, and the penicillins (3.33%) accounted the largest proportion among the antibiotics. Cardiovascular drugs (5.64%) included cardiac drugs and coronary vasodilator (4.12%) and antihypertensives and vasodilators (1.06%). And antiinflammatory drugs (4.33%), vitamins of single preparations (3.76%), hormones and their antagonists (3.29%), common cold preparations (3.12%), diuretics (2.81%), drugs supporting liver function (2.02%), drugs affecting autonomic nervous system (1.89%) including antiglaucomas, atropine and cerebral vasodilators, antihistamine drug (1.02%) and disinfectants (0.74%) were following in order. The data in the report were compared to those reported by H. Koch, et al. in United States (US), 1981 as “Drugs Most Frequently Used in Office Practice : National Ambulatory Medical Case Survey, 1981.” Cardiovascular drugs prescribed in YUH were much less in proportion than in US (10.56%), but gastrointestinal drugs accounted the larger proportion than in US (3.72%). Expectorants and preparations in YUH also accounted the larger proportion than in US (2.74%). In conclusion, in the period of March to August, 1985, OPD of YUH prescribed the CNS drugs including diazepam most frequently, and gastrointestinal, respiratory and chemotherapeutic drugs in next orders. It is supposed that the eating habits of Koreans and a unique atmospheric condition in Taegu as a basin were some important factors that affected the proportions of drugs acting on gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science