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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Jiyoun Kim 1 Article
The pathophysiology of diabetic foot: a narrative review
Jiyoun Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(4):328-334.   Published online October 5, 2023
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  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
An aging population and changes in dietary habits have increased the incidence of diabetes, resulting in complications such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). DFUs can lead to serious disabilities, substantial reductions in patient quality of life, and high financial costs for society. By understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of DFUs, their occurrence can be prevented and managed more effectively. The pathophysiology of DFUs involves metabolic dysfunction, diabetic immunopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and angiopathy. The processes by which hyperglycemia causes peripheral nerve damage are related to adenosine triphosphate deficiency, the polyol pathway, oxidative stress, protein kinase C activity, and proinflammatory processes. In the context of hyperglycemia, the suppression of endothelial nitric oxide production leads to microcirculation atherosclerosis, heightened inflammation, and abnormal intimal growth. Diabetic neuropathy involves sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathies. The interaction between these neuropathies forms a callus that leads to subcutaneous hemorrhage and skin ulcers. Hyperglycemia causes peripheral vascular changes that result in endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased vasodilator secretion, leading to ischemia. The interplay among these four preceding pathophysiological factors fosters the development and progression of infections in individuals with diabetes. Charcot neuroarthropathy is a chronic and progressive degenerative arthropathy characterized by heightened blood flow, increased calcium dissolution, and repeated minor trauma to insensate joints. Directly and comprehensively addressing the pathogenesis of DFUs could pave the way for the development of innovative treatment approaches with the potential to avoid the most serious complications, including major amputations.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Afrah S Abedi, Jacob L McElroy, Vladimir Valencia, Rachel M Worcester, Zhi J Yu
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Integrated genetic analysis of diabetic complications: Bioinformatics insights into foot ulcers, neuropathy and peripheral artery disease
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    International Wound Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unveiling the challenges of diabetic foot infections: diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and rehabilitation
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    Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science.2023; 40(4): 319.     CrossRef

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science