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J Yeungnam Med Sci > Volume 24(2 Suppl); 2007 > Article
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine 2007;24(2 Suppl):S472-480.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2S.S472    Published online December 31, 2007.
A Transcutaneous Energy and Data Transmission for Implantable FES Devices
Joon Ha Lee
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea
이식형 FES 시스템의 경피적 에너지 및 데이터 전송
이준하
영남대학교 의과대학 생화학․분자생물학교실
Correspondence:  Joon Ha Lee, Tel: (053) 620-4543, Fax: (053) 629-1344, 
Email: jhrhee@yumail.ac.kr
Abstract
Background:Inductive coupling links are frequently used for powering of implanted devices for functional electrical stimulation (FES) and cochlear. They are used in applications where implanted batteries are not capable of supplying a sufficient amount of power over the time of implantation or where continuous data exchange with external components is necessary like in a leg pacemaker. Materials and Methods:This paper describes an inductive power transmission link, which was developed for an implantable stimulator for direct stimulation of denervated muscles. The carrier frequency is around 1 MHz, the transmitter coil has a diameter of 46 mm, and the implant coil is 46 mm. Data transmission to the implant with amplitude shift keying (ASK) and back to the transmitter with passive telemetry can be added without major design changes.
Results
:We chose the range of coil spacing (2 to 30 mm) to care for lateral misalignment, as it occurs in practical use. If the transmitter coil has a well defined and reliable position in respect to the implant, a smaller working range might be sufficient. Under these conditions the link can be operated in fixed frequency mode, and reaches even higher efficiencies of up to 37%. The link transmits a current of 50 mA over a distance range of 2-15 mm with an efficiency of more than 20% in tracking frequency. Conclusion:The efficiency of the link was optimized with different approaches. A class E transmitter was used to minimize losses of the power stage. The geometry and material of the transmitter coil was optimized for maximum coupling. Phase lock techniques were used to achieve frequency tracking, keeping the transmitter optimally tuned at different coupling conditions caused by coil distance variations.
Key Words: Functional electrical stimulation (FES), Implantable FES
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