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HOME > J Yeungnam Med Sci > Volume 24(2 Suppl); 2007 > Article
Review Article Nondestructive Neuroaugmentative Surgery for Intractable Cancer Pain
Seong-Ho Kim, Byung-Yon Choi, Soo-Ho Cho
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science 2007;24(2 Suppl):S192-202
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2S.S192
Published online: December 31, 2007
Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Korea
Corresponding author:  Seong-Ho Kim, Tel: (053) 620-3790, Fax: (053) 620-3770, 
Email: shkim@medical.yu.ac.kr
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Pain is probably one of the most common cancer symptoms. In addition to being a major source of suffering and disability, cancer pain is extremely frightening for patients and their families. The authors propose to adjust the World Health Organization (WHO) pain management ladder from its current three-step approach to a more sophisticated five-step algorithm that includes physical and psychological modalities along the entire continuum of care and adds two more steps related to neuromodulative and neurodestructive procedures once the opioids fail. This review discusses the current surgical options for treating cancer pain, focusing on the continuous drug infusion pump currently available and briefly exploring some of the other surgical options for pain management. The introduction of intrathecal opioid administration for intractable cancer pain is considered as one of the most important breakthroughs in pain management. Morphine, the only opioid approved by FDA for intrathecal administration, has been increasingly utilized for this purpose.

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