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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Volume 32(1); June 2015
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Review
Cellular origin of liver cancer stem cells.
Jong Ryeol Eun
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.1
  • 2,117 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Over several decades, a hierarchical cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been established in development of solid cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). In terms of this concept, HCCs originate from liver CSCs. Clinically HCCs show a wide range of manifestations from slow growth to very aggressive metastasis. One of the reasons may be that liver CSCs originate from different cells. This review describes the basic concept of CSCs and the cellular origin of liver CSCs.
Original Article
Burr hole drainage using urokinase for treatment of subacute subdural hematoma.
Min Su Kim, Seong Ho Kim, Oh Lyong Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):8-12.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.8
  • 2,203 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Enlargement of subdural hematomas is relatively rapid in subacute stage of hematoma with clinical deterioration, which eventually necessitates surgery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and safety of burr hole drainage using urokinase for management of patients with subacute subdural hematoma (SASDH). METHODS: Nine patients with SASDH were treated by burr hole drainage using urokinase. Under local anesthesia a catheter was inserted into the hematoma through a burr hole. Burr hole drainage was followed by hematoma thrombolysis with instillation of urokinase (10,000 units) every 12 hours. Drainage was discontinued when a significant decrease of hematoma was observed on cranial computed tomography. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 70 years (range, 62-87). The median Glasgow Coma Scale score before surgery was 15 (range, 11-15). Drainage was successfully performed in all patients. All patients had Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 5 at discharge. There was no surgery-related morbidity or mortality. CONCLUSION: A burr hole drainage using urokinase could be a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive method with low morbidity in treatment of selected patients with SASDHs.
Case Reports
Necrotizing enteritis with portal vein gas and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis treated with delayed operation.
Ji Yeon Yoo, Young Wook Yoo, Jihye Kim, Sang Hoon Yoo, Soyoung Ha
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):13-16.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.13
  • 2,024 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Portal vein gas and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis are uncommon conditions and have been associated with poor prognosis. They are most commonly caused by necrotizing enterocolitis but may have other causes, and they can be associated with necrotizing and ischemic colitis, intra-abdominal abscess, small bowel obstruction, diverticulitis, colon cancer, and acute pancreatitis. With the more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) scans, portal vein gas and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis have been increasingly detected in recent years. Because of its high mortality rate, necrotizing enteritis with portal vein gas and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis may be treated with emergent exploratory laparotomy. We report a case of necrotizing enteritis with portal vein gas and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis in a 47-year-old man treated with intensive medical management and delayed operation due to unstable condition and surgical mortality. He had good clinical results without complications after the delayed operation.
Amlodipine intoxication complicated by acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis.
In Hee Lee, Gun Woo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):17-21.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.17
  • 1,967 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine group, is commonly used in management of hypertension, angina, and myocardial infarction. Amlodipine overdose, characterized by severe hypotension, arrythmias, and pulmonary edema, has seldom been reported in Korean literature. We report on a fatal case of amlodipine intoxication with complications including rhabdomyolysis and oliguric acute kidney injury. A 70-year-old woman with a medical history of hypertension was presented at the author's hospital 6 hours after ingestion of 50 amlodipine (norvasc) tablets (total dosage 250 mg) in an attempted suicide. Her laboratory tests showed a serum creatinine level of 2.5 mg/dL, with elevated serum creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin. The patient was initially treated with fluids, alkali, calcium gluconate, glucagon, and vasopressors without a hemodynamic effect. High-dose insulin therapy was also started with a bolus injection of regular insulin (RI), followed by continuous infusion of RI and 50% dextrose with water. Despite intensive treatment including insulin therapy, inotropics, mechanical ventilation, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration, the patient died of refractory shock and cardiac arrest with no signs of renal recovery 116 hours after her hospital admission.
Exacerbation of spasticity in ipsilateral shoulder after right brachial plexus block in a patient with right hemiplegia.
Sang Jin Park, Jong Yoon Baek
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):22-25.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.22
  • 1,702 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Spasticity is a common impairment in patients with central nervous system disease. Clinical observation has demonstrated that spasticity can be aggravated by various factors such as emotional state as well as noxious stimuli. A 51-year-old male patient was scheduled for arteriovenous fistula surgery. He had right hemiplegia including motor weakness and spasticity. It was decided that the surgery would be performed under an axillary brachial plexus block (BPB). He appeared nervous when blockade was terminated. The spasticity of the right shoulder increased after ipsilateral BPB. However, when we administered sedative drugs and performed interscalene BPB 2 days later, spasticity did not occur. Exacerbation of spasticity might be evoked by an anxious emotional state. Thus, it seems to be good to consider removing of anxiety and using an appropriate approach when it is tried to perform nerve blocks in individuals with spasticity.
Immune thrombocytopenia associated with sarcoidosis.
Da Eun Jeong, Min Kyoung Kim, Sung Ae Koh, Kyoung Hee Lee, Joon Hyuk Choi, Young Hoon Hong, Jae Ho Cho, Eun Ju Goo, Myung Soo Hyun
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):26-30.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.26
  • 2,095 View
  • 8 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause involving multiple organs and is characterized by noncaseating granuloma. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by increased peripheral platelet destruction due to the presence of an antibody to the platelet and abnormal platelet production. There is no known pathogenesis that occurs concurrently with ITP and sarcoidosis. However, considering together of 2 known pathogenesis, abnormal immune response triggers either ITP or sarcoidosis. The disease that develops first stimulates secondary disease. After development of secondary disease, they stimulate each other. A few cases of ITP associated with sarcoidosis are well documented in English; however, the disease has rarely been reported in Korea. Here, we report on a case of ITP with sarcoidosis in a 29-year-old man. He suffered from easy bruising. The chest X-ray and the contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed bihilar lymphadenopathy and reticulonodular infiltrates. Bone marrow study and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous needle biopsy were performed and the patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis and ITP. He was put on 400 mg/kg of intravenous immunoglobulin for 5 days and administered oral steroids and further follow-up will be carried out. He has shown a good response without significant bleeding event. However, administration of more oral steroid and additional follow-up is required than for single disease, whether sarcoidosis or ITP.
Rectal perforation caused by a sharp pig backbone in a middle-aged patient with mild depression.
Hyeong Ju Sun, Jeonghun Lee, Dong Min Kim, Myeong Su Chu, Kyoung Sun Park, Dong Jin Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):31-34.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.31
  • 1,932 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In Korea, cases of direct insertion of foreign bodies into the rectum are rare in the literature. Most cases of rectal insertion of foreign bodies are associated with sexual acts and psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia. Objects inserted into the anus are usually blunt and shaped like the male genitalia. The removal method can be varied depending on the size and shape of the foreign object, its anatomical location, and the accompanying complications. In cases wherein attempts to remove the object fail or there are rectal perforation and peritonitis complications, immediate laparotomy may be required in order to prevent serious complications such as sepsis. Here, we report on a case of rectal perforation and peritonitis due to insertion of a foreign body in a middle-aged patient, with a literature review. He inserted a sharp pig backbone in his rectum and he only had depression. The patient underwent a Hartmann's operation as well as psychiatric counseling and treatment. Thus, after removal of foreign bodies, psychiatric counseling and treatment should be carried out in order to prevent similar accidents and to minimize the need for trauma medicine.
Empyema caused by Clostridium perfringens.
Hyun Sun Park, Chul Min Jung, Jang Won Choi, Yoonki Hong, Woo Jin Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):35-37.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.35
  • 1,793 View
  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pleuropulmonary diseases caused by Clostridial species infections are rare, but have a mortality rate of up to 30%. Furthermore, older people are at greater risk of developing invasive clostridium infections, and the majority of reported cases of clostridium empyema have been attributed to iatrogenic trauma or aspiration. The authors report a case of spontaneous empyema caused by Clostridium perfringens. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to Kangwon National University Hospital for empyema. The patient had no history of trauma, a dental procedure, or aspiration, and was treated using empirical antibiotics and by drainage of pleural fluid. Bacteria species that cause empyema are usually not detected, but on the 4th day of admission, C. perfringens was isolated from the pleural space. The patient was continuously treated with antibiotics for C. perfringens and drainage, and was discharged 25 days after admission with almost a fully recovered status. Increased awareness of Clostrium species infection in the elderly is needed to ensure appropriate treatment.
Liver abscess and septic complications associated with advanced gastric cancer.
Gun Jung Youn, Young Choi, Min Jae Kim, Jae Sin Lee, Ui Won Ko, Yeon Ho Joo
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):38-41.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.38
  • 2,352 View
  • 11 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pyogenic liver abscess with metastatic septic complications is a rare and serious infectious disease if not treated properly. Pyogenic liver abscesses are caused by bacterial, fungal, or parasitic organisms. Escherichia coli used to be the predominant causative agent, but Klebsiella pneumoniae emerged as a major cause in the 1990s. Liver abscesses are caused by hepatic invasion via many routes, such as, the biliary tree, portal vein, hepatic artery, direct extension, or penetrating trauma. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus and malignant conditions are established important risk factors of K. pneumoniae liver abscesses and of septic metastasis, and several recent studies have asserted that K. pneumoniae liver abscess might be a presentation of occult or silent colon cancer. We report a case of K. pneumoniae liver abscess, metastatic septic pulmonary embolism, and endophthalmitis associated with diabetes and advanced gastric cancer.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gastric cancer and adenomatous colorectal polyp concomitant with pyogenic liver abscess and bacteremia
    Min Kyu Kang, Hee Jung Kwon, Min Cheol Kim
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2020; 37(3): 246.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer Concomitant with Pyogenic Liver Abscess in the Patient with Subtotal Gastrectomy
    Dong-Hee Park, Nae-Yun Heo, Heon Sa-Kong, Na-Ri Jeong, Su-Jin Jeong, Sung Jin Oh, Kyung Han Nam
    The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology.2017; 69(2): 143.     CrossRef
Use of post-operative negative-pressure wound therapy for gouty ulcer.
Chang Yul Oh, Jung Ran Choi, Min Su Son, Sun Young Jo, Jun Ho Hur, Jung Gyu Park, Dong Ho Oh, Young Hyun Yi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):42-46.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.42
  • 1,770 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gouty ulcer can be caused by the accumulation of clumps of uric acid in body tissues that lead to acute or chronic inflammation at sites of accumulation. Furthermore, tophi-inhibiting granulation tissue may form a canal that channels microbial infection from the underlying involved joint space, and thus, presents the risk of osteomyelitis development. Accordingly, gouty ulcer must be treated appropriately. In this case, refractory wounds on gouty ulcers at the left shin and left radial ankle were treated by surgical debridement. Negative-pressure wound therapy was used successfully to prevent post-operative delayed wound healing.
Tumor lysis syndrome following sorafenib treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Shin Young Kim, Hee Yeon Kim, Yu Seung Kim, Sang Min Lee, Chang Wook Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):47-49.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.47
  • 2,357 View
  • 19 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sorafenib is indicated for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but although rare, tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) can be fatal in HCC patients with a large tumor burden. The authors describe the case of a 55-year-old hepatitis B carrier who visited our clinic with progressive dyspnea for 3 weeks. Chest and abdominal computed tomography revealed a huge HCC in the left lobe of the liver with invasion of the inferior vena cava, right atrium, and pulmonary arteries. After 8 days of sorafenib administration, TLS was diagnosed based on the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, and acute kidney injury with massive tumor necrosis by follow-up imaging. Despite discontinuation of sorafenib and supportive care, the patient's clinical course rapidly deteriorated. The authors describe a rare but fatal complication that occurred soon after sorafenib initiation for HCC. Careful follow-up is required after commencing sorafenib therapy for the early diagnosis and management of TLS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A case of hepatocellular carcinoma caused severe tumor lysis by ramucirumab
    Yuhi Sakamoto, Keizo Kato, Hiroshi Abe, Takeshi Yonezawa, Sadahiro Ito, Makiko Ika, Kiichiro Yoza, Mamika Ohara, Shogo Sakasai, Shohei Shimizu, Shinji Endo
    Kanzo.2021; 62(3): 129.     CrossRef
  • Sorafenib-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma
    Sardar Zakariya Imam, Mohammad Faizan Zahid, Muhammad Asad Maqbool
    Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy.2020; 13(3): 168.     CrossRef
Malignant mesothelioma mistaken for tuberculous pleurisy.
Ji Young Yang, Min Joo Song, So Jung Park, Jaekyung Cheon, Jung Wan Yoo, Chang Min Choi, Yong Hee Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):50-54.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.50
  • 1,820 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Malignant mesothelioma is a common, primary tumor that can invade pleura, and is associated with previous exposure to asbestos. However, it poses considerable difficulties regarding its diagnosis and treatment, and thus, accurate history taking with respect to exposure to asbestos, and radiologic and pathologic examinations are essential. In addition, the involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended in order to ensure prompt and appropriate management using a framework based on radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and symptom palliation with end-of-life care. Because lymphocyte-dominant, exudative pleural effusion can occur in malignant mesothelioma, adenosine deaminase values may be elevated, which could be mistaken for tuberculous pleurisy, and lead to an incorrect diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. The authors describe a case of malignant mesothelioma initially misdiagnosed as tuberculous pleurisy. As evidenced by the described case, malignant mesothelioma should be considered during the differential diagnosis of patients with lymphocyte-dominant, exudative pleural effusion with a pleural lung lesion.
Severe hyponatremia and seizures after bowel preparation with low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid solution.
Jae Young Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Yoon Jeong Nam, Jay Song, Min Cheol Kim, Seung Min Chung, Jong Geol Jang, Jae Ho Cho
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):55-59.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.55
  • 2,075 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The widely used polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based solutions have been proven effective for bowel preparation when 4 L of the solution is administered before colonoscopy. However, large volumes of the solutions are generally poorly tolerated. A new PEG-based solution consisting of 2 L of PEG and a high dose of ascorbic acid has recently become available. Electrolyte abnormalities caused by PEG-based solutions have rarely been reported. We report on a case of acute severe hyponatremia with associated generalized tonic-clonic seizures after bowel preparation with a low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid solution in a 74-year-old woman with no history of seizures. She took a beta blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and glimepiride for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. She showed general weakness, nausea, agitation, muscle cramping, and seizures after ingestion of the PEG plus ascorbic acid solution. Her serum sodium level was 112 mEq/L. Her symptoms improved after intravenous administration of hypertonic saline. Physicians should pay attention to screening for electrolytes and development of neurological symptoms during bowel preparation.
Choledochocele containing a stone mistaken as a distal common bile duct stone.
Tae Young Kwak, Chang Hwan Park, Seok Hyeon Eom, Hong Suk Hwang, Duk Won Chung, Ji Young Seo, Yeong Sung Kim, Dong Hyup Kwak
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2015;32(1):60-64.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2015.32.1.60
  • 1,919 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A choledochocele is an expanded sac of the duodenal side of the distal common bile duct (CBD), and is categorized as a type III choledochal cyst. Unlike other choledochal cysts, it can be easily overlooked because of its very low prevalence, non-specific clinical symptoms, and lack of distinctive radiological findings. However, a patient having a repeated pancreaticobiliary disorder with an unknown origin, frequent abdominal pain after cholecystectomy, or repeated non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms can be suspected as having a choledochocele, and a more accurate diagnosis can be achieved via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound. Because it rarely becomes malignant, a choledochocele can be treated via endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and surgical treatment. The authors were able to diagnose choledochocele accompanied by a stone in a patient admitted to the authors' hospital due to cholangitis and pancreatitis. The patient's condition was suspected to have been caused by a distal CBD stone detected via multiple detector computed tomography and ERCP, and was successfully treated via EST.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science