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Pock Soo Kang 28 Articles
Health Behaviors of Nurses at a University Hospital according to Type of Work.
Mi Kyung Kwon, Pock soo Kang, Tae Yoon Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(1):55-66.   Published online June 30, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.1.55
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The goal of this study was to examine the health behaviors of nurses and provide basic information on health promotion for nurses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 340 nurses working at a university hospital in Daegu, Korea from March 6 to March 30, 2006. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, working environment, health behaviors, self-assessed health status, and the practice of health promotion activities according to the work group(shift group vs. non-shift group). RESULTS: There were significant differences in 'regular diet', 'drinking', 'ordinary health management', 'regular exercise', 'leisure activities', 'rest', and 'feeling of fatigue' between the two groups. The score for the practice of health promotion activities of the non-shift group was 121.9, which was higher than the 115.4 for the shift group. By field of practice of health promotion activities, there were significant differences in 'self-realization' and 'nutrition' between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The shift group did not appear to have enough time to take care of their health. It is therefore important to provide a working environment in which nurses are encouraged to increase their interest and efforts to maintain healthy behaviors. In addition, programs for education and training should be developed to help nurses adopt healthy life styles and enhance their self-esteem.

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  • Associations of mindful eating with dietary intake pattern, occupational stress, and mental well‐being among clinical nurses
    Seung‐Hye Choi, Haeyoung Lee
    Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.2020; 56(2): 355.     CrossRef
  • A Survey on the Health Behavior and General and Ocular Health Care Status of Optometrists
    Jihye Ahn, Eunji Oh, Moonsung Choi
    Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society.2020; 25(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Happiness Index of Hospital Nurses
    Moon Hee Nam, Young Chae Kwon
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.2013; 19(3): 329.     CrossRef
Agreement among the Survey Instruments used to Measure Cognitive Functions in the Elderly.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyung Beom Park, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang, Sang Kyu Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2005;22(2):141-149.   Published online December 31, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2005.22.2.141
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PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the level of agreement among survey instruments used to study dementia and to determine the prevalence rate of suspected dementia using different instruments. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total 171 subjects older than 65 in Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, were surveyed from February to October 2003. The age, sex and educational level were examined through interview surveys, and cognitive function was evaluated using three survey instruments including MMSE-K, S-SDQ, and KDSQ. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores obtained with the MMSE-K showed significant difference according to age. For sex and educational level significant differences were observed with all three survey instruments. The kappa index, the level of agreement between the questionnaires, was 0.302 between MMSE-K and S-SDQ, 0.401 between MMSE-K and KDSQ, and 0.762 between KDSQ and S-SDQ. The prevalence rate of suspected dementia based on the criteria suggested by MMSE-K, S-SDQ, and KDSQ was 27.5%, 15.2%, and 17.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that caution is needed when comparing the measured cognitive function scores and analyzing the prevalence of dementia; this is because the prevalence of dementia and cognitive functions vary according to the questionnaires used.
Demands for Health Education through Internet in Middle and High School Students.
Pock Soo Kang, Yeun Hwa Choi, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):23-39.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is important to provide health education to students to ensure a healthy life. Using the internet for health education may be a way to overcome the practical barriers to health education such as time and content. This study was conducted to investigate the demands for health education using the internet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundreds and twenty-four and male female students in middle and high schools, who lived on Gyeongju-si and Seongju-gun in Gyeongsangbuk-do province, were interviewed by means of structured questionnaires, from March 5 to March 28, 2003. RESULTS: More than 90% of the subjects had their own computers, and nearly 38% of those possessing their own computers had accessed internet sites related to health and medicine. Middle school students and in particular, female students were more desirous for health education through e-mail. Regarding content, the three major topics which the respondents wanted to learn about were healthy lifestyles, growth and development, and disease prevention. In terms of the interval for providing educational materials, over half of the students wanted information once a week. Most of the students wanted to have the quantity of the material be one page. In addition, there were numerous additional topics requested by the students such as sleep and health, contraception and family planning, safety education, cancer prevention, emotional instability of juveniles, the utilization of medical care facilities, stress management, etc. CONCLUSION: The students had a desire for health education through the use of e-mail, and methods and materials should be developed for appropriate health education using the internet.

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  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Knowledge, Attitude, and Intention of High School Girls in Korea
    Hee Sun Kang
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2009; 15(4): 336.     CrossRef
Effects of Ethanol on Neurobehavioral Performance.
Man Joong Jeon, Joon Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Moon Chan Kim, Hak Soo Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1997;14(1):183-196.   Published online June 30, 1997
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1997.14.1.183
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An experimental study was performed to investigate. The subjects drank 0.5g/kg ethanol and performed 7 items of SPES(simple reaction time, color word stress, digit classification, finger tapping speed, numerical ability, symbol digit coding, memory digit span). 20 students of medical college participated in the study during August, 1996. After ethanol intake, performance of 4 items(simple reaction time, digit classification, finger tapping speed, symbol digit coding) significantly showed to be decreased. The function of perception - response speed and steady movement were found to be more sensitive to ethanol than that of short - term memory, numerical ability and specification of color. No significant association were found between smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI(body mass index) and the effects of ethanol on neurobehavioral performance.

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  • Assessment of Availability of Korean Computerized Neurobehavioral Test in Patients with Brain Injury
    Tae-Hoon Kim, Man-Joong Jeon, Joon Sakong
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2013; 13(6): 339.     CrossRef
Attitudes of Physician, Nurse and Patient towards Physician's and Nurse's Uniform.
Youn Heui Jung, Suk Bum Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(2):324-346.   Published online December 31, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.2.324
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A survey was conducted to study attitudes of physician, nurse and patient towards physician's and nurse's uniform, from March 1 to March 31, 1996. The study population was 130 physicians and 147 nurses engaged in Yeungnam University Medical Center and 211 inpatients of Yeungnam University Medical Center. A questionnaire method was used to collect data. The following are summaries of findings: In the respect of physician's uniform, both physicians and nurses preferred other type of gown to the traditional coat-typed one and especially, nurses preferred more than physicians. Patients showed no difference in the preference of the traditional one and other form of gown as a whole but those who had higher educational level preferred other form of gown(p<0.01). It tended to agree wearing casual wear of physician during the working time of weekend and holiday as a whole. Younger physicians showed significantly higher preference for it(p<0.05). Regarding the nurse's uniform, both physicians and nurses preferred trousers, and 96% of the nurses did. Especially, nurses who were forty years old or more and who served at outpatient department and administrative and aid parts expressed 100 percent partiality to trousers. For the patients, those who had lower educational level preferred skirt and those who had higher educational level preferred trousers. As to the color of nurse's gown, 46.7% of the physicians and nurses liked white color. The physicians preferred white and nurses preferred other color(p<0.01). Of the patients, 79.1% liked white color. Regarding the wearing cap, 95.9% of the nurses replied it didn't have to wear the cap. The nurses who were fifty or more and who served at outpatient department and special parts gave whole answers of not having to wear the cap. On the other hand, 77.7% of the patients answered nurse had to wear the cap. From the above findings, it would be advisable to give a change to the forms and colors of the gowns to match with the trend and sense of the time instead of insisting on the traditional typical ones.
A study on Perception and attitudes of Examinees of Health Screening Center towards health Examination.
Seong Wook Bae, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):59-77.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.59
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A survey was conducted to study perception and attitudes of examinees of, health screening center towards items, cost and procedures of health examination and degree of satisfaction with health examination, from March 2 to May 31, 1995. The study population was 468 examinees received health examination at Health Screening & Diagnosis Center of Yeungnam University Hospital. A questionnaire method was used to collect data. The followings are summaries of findings Examinees were predominantly male(77.4%) ; had college education(68.6%), and held white-collar workers (57.8%). Statistical significance of association between frequency of periodic health examination and other variables
Knowledge and Attitude about AIDS among Teachers in Taegu City.
Tae Yoon Hwang, Jun Sakong, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):32-45.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.32
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The AIDS is a serious health problem worldwide today and also in Korea. Increasing knowledge and modification of behavior by health education is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) prevention strategies. And school health education is an important part of health education. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about AIDS in teachers and professors in Taegu City and to provide the basic data for school health education. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 1,124 teachers and professors from April to June 1992. Indeed, the majority of the teachers and professors have a lot of knowledges about AIDS, but many of them also have misconceptions. The level of knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with attitude toward infected students. The sources of knowledge about AIDS were mainly TV, newspapers and magazines, but a few of the subjects obtained their knowledge from health education programs. This study suggest., that the reinforcement of health education for the teachers, professors and students be needed to provide the accurate knowledge on AIDS and adequate knowledge sources and materials for school health education on AIDS should be developed.
A Study on Preception and Attitudes of Health Workers Towards the Organization and Activies of Urban Health Centers.
Jae Mu Lee, Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Cheon Tae Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(2):347-365.   Published online December 31, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.2.347
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A survey was conducted to study perception and attitudes of health workers towards health centers activities and organization of health services, from August 15 to September 30, 1994. The study population was 310 health workers engaged in seven urban health centers in Taegu City area. A questionnaire method was used to collect data and response rate was 81.3 percent or 252 respondents. The following are summaries of findings: Profiles of study population: Health workers were predomina1itly female(62.3%); had college education(60. 3%); 'and held medical and nursing positions(39.6%), technicians(30.6%) and. public health/administrativc positions(29.8%). Perceptions on health center's resources: Slightly more than a half(51.1%) of respondents expressed that physical facilities of the centers are inadequate; equipments needed are short(39.0%); human resource is inadequate(44.8%); and health budget allocated is insufficient(38.5%) to support the performance of health center's activities. Decentralization and health services: The majority revealed that the decentralization of government system would affect the future activities of health centers(51.9%) which may have to change. However, only one quarter of respondents(25.4%) seemed to view the decentralization positively as they expect that it would help perform health activities more effectively. The majority of the respondents(78.6%) insisted that the function and organization of the urban health centers should be changed. Target workload and job satisfaction: A large proportion (43.3%) of respondents felt that present target setting systems for various health activities are unrealistic in terms of community needs and health center's situation while only 11.1 percent responded it positively; the majority(57.5%) revealed that they need further training in professional fields to perform their job more effectively; more than one third(35.7%) expressed that they enjoy their professional autonomy in their job performance; and a considerable proportion (39.3%) said they are satisfied with their present work. Regarding the personnel management, more worker (47.3%) perceived it negatively than positive(11.5%) as most of workers seemed to think the personnel management practiced at the health centers is not fair or justly done. Health services rendered: Among health services rendered, health workers perceived the following services are most successfully delivered; they are, in order of importance, Th controi, curative services, and maternal and child health care. Such areas as health education, oral health, environmental sanitation, and integrated health services are needed to be strengthening. Regarding the community attitudes towards health workers, 41.3 percent of respondents think they are trusted by the community they serve. New areas of concern identified which must be included in future activities of health centers are, in order of priority, health care of elderly population, home health care, rehabilitation services, and such chronic diseases control programs as diabetes, hypertension, school health and mental health care. In conclusion, the study revealed that health workers seemed to have more negative perceptions and attitudes than positive ones towards organization and management of health services and activities performed by the .urban health centers where they are engaged. More specifically, the majority of health workers studied revealed to have the following areas of health center's organization and management inadequate or insufficient to support effective performance of their health activities: Namely, physical facilities and equipments required are inadequate; human and financial resources are insufficient; pefsonnel management is unsatisfactory; setting of service target system is unrealistic in terms of the community needs. However, respondents displayed a number of positive 'perceptions, particularly' to those areas as further training needs 'and implementation of decentralization of government system which will bring more autonomy of local government as they perceived these change would bring the necessary changes to future activities of the health center. They also displayed positive perceptions in their job autonomy and have job satisfactions.
Health Promotion.
Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1994;11(2):195-201.   Published online December 31, 1994
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1994.11.2.195
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No abstract available.
Risk factors in relation to blood pressure in school children.
Dong Soo Lee, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(2):345-359.   Published online December 31, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.2.345
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This study was conducted to identify the factors related to the blood pressure in school children. The study subjects were 144 boys and 140 girls aged 10 years old, 4th grade student of one elementary school in Taegu City. Blood pressure and 18 variables for 284 school children were measured in May 1992. A weight-for-height index, Rohrer index(weightlheighe) was calculated for each individual as a measure of obesity. Body fat percent, fat weight, and lean body mass were measured by impedance fat meter(Model SIF-891). Serum total cholesterol, higli-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, uric acid, total protein, and electrolyte were measured by automated clinical chemistry analyzer(Hitachi 4020). Low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index were calculated by the equation. The variables assessed were sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, Rohrer index, body fat percent, body fat weight, lean body mass, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, uric acid, total protein, serum electrolyte and blood glucose. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures for boys were 104.1mmHg and 66.6mmHg and those for girls were 102.9mmHg and 67.5mmHg. Systolic blood pressure of boys was positively correlated with height, weight, Rohrer index, fat weight, lean body mass, and triglyceride. Systolic blood pressure of girls was positively correlated with height, weight, lean body mass, and uric acid. Diastolic blood pressure of boys was positively correlated with weight, Rohrer index, and lean body mass. Diastolic blood pressure of girls was positively correlated with height, weight, fat weight, and lean body mass and negatively with total serum protein. In multiple regression analysis for the systolic blood pressure, the significant independent variables were Rohrer index and serum sodium in boys, and serum uric acid, fat percent, and Rohrer index in girls. In multiple regression analysis of the diastolic blood pressure, the significant independent variables were Rohrer index in boys and total serum protein in girls. This study indicated that important factors influencing blood pressure in school children were Rohrer index, fat percent, serum sodium, uric acid, and total protein. Rohrer index was most important among these. It is recommended to enforce the nutritional education for diet control of obesity to prevent hypertention in children and to adopt healthy life-styles that promote good health and prevent development of cardiovascular risk factors.
Medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area.
In Soo Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):91-102.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.91
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This study was carried out to assess medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area. The study population included 377 family members of 85 households in the poor area of Daemyung 8-Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 442 family members of 96 households in a control area. The data was collected through self-administered q'iestionnaires completed by housewives. The survey was conducted. from , March 1 to May 31; 1992. The mean age was 31. 1 years in the poor area and 37. 1 years in the control area. The average number of households per house was 4.5 in the poor area and 4.5 in the control area. The frequency of medical care utilization per household in a one month period was 4.6 in the poor area and 4.3 in the control area. The average number of days of utilization was 12.9 in the poor area and 12.5 in the control area. The averge monthly income of a househlod in the poor area was 848,600 Won compared to the control area's 1,752,300 Won. The average monthly consumption expenditure of a household in the poor area was 568,800 Won and that in the control area 1,238,400 Won. The average medical care monthly expenditure per household was 34,500 Won in the poor area and 58,400 Won in the control area. The proportion of the medical care expenditure to monthly income and to monthly consumption expenditure was 4.1% and 6.1% respectively in the poor area, and 3.3% and 4.7%, respectively in the control area. The premium of medical insurance was 1.5% in both areas. The proportion of cost for drug was 57.4%, for medical appliance was 1.2%, and for medical treatment was 41.1% in the poor area and in the control area 52.4%, 1.9%, 45.7%, respectively. The highest proportion of medical care expenditures in the poor area was herb clinic utilization (36.9%). while hospital and clinic (37.8%) was the highest proportion in the control area. Mean medical care expenditure per visit was 7,400 Won in the poor area and 12,600 Won in the control area. Mean medical care expinditure per day was 2,800 Won in the poor area and 6.300 Won in the control area.
Association between cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails.
Jung Kil Rhee, Jong Hak Chung, Jun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Chang Yoon Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Koing Bo Kwon
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):29-43.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails. Seventy three patients and two hundreds eighty three controls were selected at the Yeungnam University Hospital between May and September in 1991. The selected cases were patients who had been hospitalized for stomach or colon cancer at the Department of General Surgery. The controls were people who visited to check physical examination at the Automated Mediscreening Center. The selenium concentration in whole blood and toenails were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was ascertained for all cancer patients and controls: sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, and history of smoking and drinking. The mean selenium concentration in blood and toenail for all cancer patients were 143.6±10.8 µg/l and 1.04±0.62 µg/g and for the controls. 167.0±14.5 µg/l and 1.15±0.55 µg/g, respectively. The difference in blood and toenail selenium concentrations of the two cancer sites was not statistically significant. Metastasis did not influence the concentration of selenium in blood and toenails. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the blood selenium concentration (aOR: 0.888, 95% CI: 0.860-0.918), age, BMI and total serum cholesterol were significant variables for risk of cancer, but the selenium concentration in toenail was not shown to be a significant variable in this regression analysis. The coefficient for blood selenium concentration adjusted for age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, body mass index and smoking was -0.1184 (p<0.01). These findings suggest that low selenium concentration is associated with gastrointestinal cancers. Further epidemiologic studies including important variables such as other antioxidant micronutrients will be necessary.

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  • Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels
    Jae Hyo Ji, Dong Gue Shin, Yujin Kwon, Dong Hui Cho, Kyung Bok Lee, Sang Soo Park, Jin Yoon
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2012; 12(4): 217.     CrossRef
Comparison of medical care utilization patterns between beneficiaries of medical aid and medical insurance.
Bok Youn Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):185-201.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.185
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A household survey was conducted to compare the patterns of morbidity and medical care utilization between medical aid beneficiaries and medical insurance beneficiaries. The study population included 285 medical aid beneficiaries that were completely surveyed and 386 medical insurance beneficiaries selected by simple random sampling from a Dong (Township) in Taegu. Well-trained surveyors mainly interviewed housewives with a structured questionnaire. The morbidity rates of acute illness during the 15-day period, were 63 per 1,000 medical aid beneficiaries and 62 per 1,000 medical insurance beneficiaries. The rates for chronic illness were 123 per 1,000 medical beneficiaries and 73 per 1,000 medical insurance beneficiaries. The most common type of acute illness in medical aid and medical insurance beneficiaries was respiratory disease in medical aid beneficiaries, musculoskeletal disease was most common, but in medical insurance beneficiaries, gastrointestinal disease was most common. The mean duration of acute illness of medical aid beneficiaries was 3.8 days and that of medical insurance beneficiaries was 6.8 days. During the one year period, mean duration of medical aid beneficiaries chronic illnesses was 11.5 months which was almost twice as long compared to medical insurance beneficiaries. Pharmacy was most preferable facility among the acute illness patient in medical aid beneficiaries, but acute cases of medical insurance beneficiaries visited the clinic most commonly. Chronic cases of both groups visited the clinic most frequently. There were some findings suggesting that much unmet need existed among the medical aid beneficiaries. In acute cases, the average number of days of medical aid users utilized medical facilities was less than medical insurance users. On the other hand, the length of medical care utilization of chronic cases was reversed. Geographical accessibility was the most important factors in utilization of medical facilities. Almost half of the study population answered the questions about source of funds on medical security correctly. Most respondents considered that the objective of medical security was affordability. The chief complaint on hospital utilization was the complicated administrative procedures. These findings suggest that there were some problems in the medical aid system, especially in the referral system.
A study on the accidents of the residents in a rural area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Ok Keum Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):174-184.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.174
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To determine the incidence rate of accidents and its associated factors, a prospective survey was carried out in a rural area of a total of 1,360 residents for 1 year from January 1 to December 31, 1988 in Shin-am Ri, Jungdong Myun, Sangju Kun, Kyeongpook Province. Data for accidents were collected by the community health practitioner who is working at Primary Health Post in Shin-am Ri. A total number of accident cases was 85 among 1,360 persons during one year study period, and annual incidence rate was 62.5 per 1,000 persons. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in the age group of 30-39 was 179.8. The incidence rate of accident in male was 86.5 which was about 2 times that in female. In male, the highest incidence rate was seen in 30-39 age group and in female, 60-69 age group. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in spring (29.4%) and summer (29.4%), and the lowest in fall (17.7%). The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in Friday (24.5%) by day of week, and between 9 a.m. to 12 a.m. by time zone. The most frequent use of medical facilities was Primary Health Post (51.8%) and the next was clinic (38.8%). Mean duration of treatment was 9.8 days. The accident occurred in the room and kitchen (23.5%), in the yard and barn (23.5%), on the road (22.4%), and in the rice field and dry field (20.0%). The causes of accident were motor vehicle accident (20.0%), piercing or cutting (20.0%), collision or fighting (12.9%), and poisoning (11.8%) in order of frequency. The most common type of injury was open wound which was 43.5%. The most common tool of accident was farm machine which was 23.5%. The most common injured part of body was extremity 55.3%.
Morbidity pattern of residents in urban poor area by health screening.
Chang Yoon Kim, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):150-157.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.150
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The purpose of this study was to assess the morbidity pattern of urban residents in the poor area by health screening for the community diagnosis. The items of health screening were history taking and physical examination by medical doctor and hearing test, check blood pressure, test for hematocrit, liver function (sGOT, sGPT), urine sugar and protein, and chest X-ray. The examinee in health screening were 437 persons and they occupied 16.9% of total residents in the poor area. Male examinee were 129 persons (9.9% of total residents) and female examinee were 308 persons (23.9% of total residents). Age group of above sixty years old, 42.0% of total residents in the poor area were participated, but only 5.9% were participated in age group of 10 to 19 years old. Among the 437 examinee, 191 persons (43.7%) had one or more abnormal findings in health screening. In male 38.7% had abnormal findings, and somewhat lower than that of female (45.8%). Age group of above sixty years had most high rate of abnormal findings (69.8%), in contrast to age group of 10 to 19 years old (10.9%). Diseases of the digestive system was the most common and which occupies 23.7% of total abnormal findings. And diseases of the circulatory system occupied 19.7%. Low hematocrit (14.6% of total participants of 437 persons) occupies the most common abnormal findings for screening test (hematocrit, blood pressure, hearing test, sGOT/sGPT, urine protein and urine sugar, chest X-ray) and high blood pressure (10.1%) occupied second, third; hearing impairment (5.5%), fourth; abnormal liver function (4.1%), fifth; sugar in urine (2.3%), sixth; protein in urine (1.4%) and lastly abnormal chest X-ray (0.9%). The positive rate of abnormal findings in health screening was very high compared with morbidity rate by health interview. It is supposed that some portion of this high rate is by selection bias in examinee in health screening specially high participating rate in older age, and the other portion is due to the low socioeconomic status and bad environment of the residents of the poor area. These findings will be good information for the research and development of health care system in the urban poor area.
Morbidity pattern and medical care utilization behavior of residents in urban poor area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Jun Sakong, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(1):107-126.   Published online June 30, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.1.107
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The purpose of the study was to assess the morbidity pattern and the medical care utilization behavior of urban residents in the poor area. The study population included 2,591 family members of 677 households in the poor area of Daemyong 8 Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 2,686 family members of 688 households, near the poor area in the same Dong, were interviewed as a control group. On this study the household interview method was applied. Well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households or housewives for general information, morbidity condition, and medical care utilization with a structured questionnaire. Individuals were interviewed from 1 to 30 December 1988. The major results were summarized as follow: The proportion of the people below 5 years of age was 4.2% of the total study population and 5.5% were above 65 years of age in the poor area. This was slightly higher than in the control area. The average monthly income of a household in the poor area was 403,000 won versus 529,000 won in the control area. Fifty-eight percent of the residents in the poor area and sixty-one percent in the control area were medical security beneficiaries, but the proportion of medical aid beneficiaries was 7.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area. The 15-day period morbidity rate of acute illnesses was 57.1 per 1,000 in the poor area and 24.2 per 1,000 in the control area. Respiratory disease is the most common acute illness in both areas. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with acute illnesses in the poor area. Among them 58.1% visited pharmacy initially while 38.4% of the patients in the control area visited a clinic. Among persons with illnesses during the 15 days, 8.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 3.5 days in the poor area and 3.3 days in the control area. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, The pharmacy in the poor area and the clinic in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital was 'regular customers' in the poor area and 'geographical accessibility' in the control area. The one year period morbidity rate of chronic illness in the poor area was 83.0 per 1,000 population and 28.0 per 1,000 in the control area. Disease of nervous system was the most common chronic illness in the poor area while cardiovascular disease in male and gastrointestinal disease in female were most prevalent in the control area. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with chronic illnesses in the poor area. Among them 24.2% visited the pharmacy initially while 34.7% of the patients in the control area visited the out-patient department of the hospital within a 15-day period. Among the patients with chronic illnesses 34.9% in the poor area and 16.0% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 9.2 days in the poor area and 9.9 days in the control area within a 15-day period. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, the pharmacy in the poor area and the hospital in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital, clinic, health center or pharmacy in the poor area was 'geographical accessibility' while the reason for visiting herb clinic was 'good result' and 'reputation' in both areas.
Healthy City Porject through Primary Health Care Approach.
Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(1):12-23.   Published online June 30, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.1.12
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No abstract available.
A study on physical growth of primary school student in the rural area.
Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(1):51-60.   Published online June 30, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.1.51
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In order to assess the physical growth of primary school student in the rural area, body height, weight, chest circumference and sitting height of 923 students (469 males, 454 females) in the town of Angang, Kyungpook province, Korea, were measured from April to May, 1988. The most growth age of boy height was 10-11 years old in both sex and the growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of body weight was 10-11 years old and growth curves were crossed at 9-11 years old. The most rapid growth age of chest circumference was 10-11 years old in female, whereupon female outgrows male by contrast with male's slow and linear growth. The most rapid growth age of sitting height was 10-11 years old and the growth curves were crossed at 9-10 years old. The Rother index was 1.17-1.30 in male, 1.16-1.29 in female, and male's index was in general superior to female's.
The Effect of Interpregnancy Interval on Birth Weight.
Kwang Yeul Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):173-181.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.173
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The effect of interpregnancy interval on birthweight of the subsequent child was investigated for the 1,347 women of 25 to 40yearsold age who visited OBGY and Pediatric department of the general hospital in Taegu city. Questions in designed questionnaire were asked by student interviewers who were trained in nursing school. Mean birth weight by interpregnancy intervals were compared by intervals of 6 months. Mean birth weight increased from 3,250 grams for intervals of 6 months to 3,357 grams for intervals of 25-30 months, but the difference was not statistically significant (=0.47). Correlations between the continuous variables which were suspected as confounders and interpregnancy interval and birth weight were investigated. The coefficient of correlation between maternal age and interpregnancy interval was 0.39, between gestational period and birth weight 0.30 and between prepregnancy weight and birth weight 0.16 and between birth weight of first baby and birth weight (of second baby) 0.44. But maternal age, gestational period and prepregnancy weight were not considered as confounder, because they were not correlated simultaneously with birth interval and birth weight. Associations between the discrete variables which were suspected as confounders, and interpregnancy interval were investigated by Chi-square test. Associations between interpregancy interval and educational level of mothers, types of husband's occupation, types of medical security, sex were not significant (P-values were 0.59, 0.75, 0.75, 0.82 respectively), so we did not considered these variables as confounding variables. In multiple regression analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first baby, gestational analysis of birth weight, significant variables were birth weight of first bay, gestational period, sex of neonate and prepregnancy body weight of mother. Of the 1,347 births, the rate of low birth weight was 2% (27 birth). The rate for interpregnancy interval 7-12months was highest as 3.6% and that for 13-18 months was lowest as 0.6%, but there was no regular tendency related with interpregnancy interval.
Comparison Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Motivation Between Blood Donors and Non-donors.
Jae Hack Shin, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung, Dal Hyo Song
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):159-172.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.159
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to compare the date on knowledge, attitude and motivation toward blood donation between donors and non-donors. The study population included 622 donors and 322 non-donors who visited the mobile blood donation car of Taegu Red Cross Blood Center and participated the group appointed blood donation campaign managed by the center from March 1 to March 31, 1989. The donors and non-donors were questioned above mentioned items with a formulated questionnaire. Among the general characteristics of the subjects in the study, male predominance (84.1% in donors and 73.6% in non-donors) in young age group (16-24 years) was the outstanding feature. As a medium of information about blood donation, “television” was playing a dominant role (donors; 75.2%, non-donors; 78.9%), while “magazine” played more important roles among donors. Of the donors, 70.6% and of the non-donors, 58.1 replied that they had ever been induced to donate blood (p<0.01). Major inducers were friend and personnel of mobile blood donation vehicle. On the measuring of knowledge level, the average rates of correct answer was higher in donors (62.6%) than in non-donors (54.1%) (p<0.01). Higher the education level was presented, higher the knowledge level (p<0.05). There have been noticeable difference between donors and non-donors in blood replying the questionnaire set to measure their attitude toward blood donation, especially in the items such as “impression toward blood”, “selection of transfusion blood source” and “view on the situation of blood shortage.” The major motivation toward blood donation of the groups were “possible future need” and “altruism or humanitarian interest”. The major reasons for not donation blood in both groups were “fear of the needle” and “dread to visit to mobile car or center”.

Citations

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  • Association between Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Blood Donation in University Students
    Jung-Hyun Kim, Joong-Soo Yoon
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2015; 15(10): 316.     CrossRef
Lead in Maternal Blood and Cord Blood.
Dong Soo Lee, Jun Sakong, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1989;6(2):147-157.   Published online December 31, 1989
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1989.6.2.147
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To investigate the blood lead concentration, their interrelation, correlation factor and influence on pregnant women and newborn, lead concentration in the maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were determined. Samples were collected from 130 mothers who were living in the Taegu City, during March, 1989. Blood lead concentration was estimated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (IL. 551) equipped with Flameless Furnace Atomizer (IL. 665). The mean lead concentration of maternal and cord blood were 17.47±7.92 µg/dl, 15.31±7.98 µg/dl, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the lead concentration of maternal and cord blood, r=0.663, Y=0.667X+3.646. No significant correlation was observed between previous spontaneous abortion and obstetric complication of mother and maternal blood lead concentration. Similarly, no significant correlation was observed between the sex, gestational age of neonate and cord blood lead concentration. But the birth weight of neonate had some negative correlation with cord blood lead concentration. The blood lead concentration of mother who had engaged in manufactures were higher than others and the longer working years were, the higher blood lead concentration were. Significant correlation was observed between husband's occupational exposure to lead and maternal blood lead concentration.
Isolation of the Legionella Species from Specimens of Cooling Tower Water.
Jong Hak Chung, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Bhum Kim, Jun Sakong
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):77-84.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.77
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The principal mode of the transmission of Legionnaires disease is an inhalation of the cooling tower water droplets in which Legionellae exist. As a central cooling system is popularized in many public buildings and large buildings nowadays, the number of cooling towers in rapidly increasing. Therefore the possibility of an outbreak of Legionnaires disease is likely increased. To determine the presence of Legionella in cooling tower water as the first step for the prevention of Legionnaires disease, 48 samples of cooling tower water were taken from 24 buildings in Taegu city in July and September 1987. Three samples out of 24 water samples in September yielded Legionella but it was not isolated in the samples of July. Isolated 3 Legionellas were identified as Legionella peumophila. It seems that Legionella from the cooling tower will be isolated more frequently in late summer than early because central cooling system is stopped operation during winter season which in cool. As based on our survey, Legionnaires disease can occur in Taegu city and if it happens it is most likely due to L. pneumophila.
Physico-chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Tap Water in the Apartment in Taegu City.
Seok Bhum Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):69-75.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.69
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The drinking water in apartment is stored in reservoir tank and thereafter supplied each household. In case the drinking water in stored too long or insanitary, tap water might change in quality. This study was carried out to evaluate the physic-chemical and microbiological conditions of 36 samples of tap water of apartments compared to 18 samples of tap water of independence houses in Taegu City from May to October, 1987. Main findings are summarized as follows: PH values were within normal range in all samples. Samples less than 0.2ppm in residual chlorine accounted for 16.7% in the apartment and 5.6% in the independence house. Nitrite nitrogen was detected 2.8% of apartment samples only. Among the total of 54 samples, 11.1% of the apartment and independence samples were over the normal value in standard plate count. Samples more than 1.8 of most probable number (MPN) accounted for 27.8% in the apartment and 33.3% in the independence house. In result of test for residual chlorine, nitrite nitrogen, standard plate count, and MPN, the proportion of the samples revealed inappropriate in respect of drinking water standards. In case of all sorts of tests was 2.7% in apartment and nothing in independence houses, in case of 3 sorts of tests was 2.7% in apartment and 5.6% in independence houses, in case of 2 sorts of tests was 8.3% in apartment and 5.6% in independence houses, and in case of only 1 test was 25.0% in apartment and 22.2% in independence houses. Correlation between residual chorine and standard plate count, and between standard plate count and MPN were observed. It was found that the more years since construction of apartment were, the worse tap water was in quality.
District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care.
Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A Survey on Activities of Community Health Practitioners in Rural Area.
Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(2):139-148.   Published online December 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.2.139
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The community health practitioners (CHP) play an important role in primary health care services to the underserved population in rural area. Time and motion study of 26 CHPs in Kyungpook Province was conducted through work diary method for 6 consecutive days from the time they arrived until they left the primary health post (PHP) during the past 3 weeks from November 16 to December 5, 1987. The allocation of activity time by working category, service category, location of activity and CHP's function was analyzed according to the characteristics of CHPs i. e., age, marital status and experience as CHP. The major findings are as follows: The mean activity time per CHP in a week was 2,918 minutes. The length of their working hours as longer for older, married and more experienced CHPs than other. About 80% of the CHP's activities took place within the PHP and only about 20% occurred outside of the PHP. Working hours for the outdoor activities were longer for younger, single and less experienced CHPs than others. The allocation of activity time by working category showed 46.3% in the technical work and 18.7% in the administrative work. Working hours for the technical activities were longer for younger, single and less experienced CHPs than others. The percentage of activity time revealed greatest as much as 63.1% for direct patient care in technical word and 61.6% for record keeping in administrative work. Of the total working hours in a week, direct patient care and public health activities accounted for 29.2.% and 16.2%, respectively. Of the indoor activities, working hours for direct patient care were longer than those for public health activities. However, of the outdoor activities, working hours for public health activities were longer than those for direct patient care. The allocation of activity time by CHP's function showed 49.7% in management of common disease, 31.8% in management of PHP and technical supervision of village health workers, 9.5% in MCH and family planning, 6.6% in community health management and 2.4% in community approach. Based on these findings, it was found that CHPs were mainly working in the PHP with a majority of their time being spent of direct patient care rather than preventive and promotive health cares. To enhance the preventive and promotive health services of the CHPs and to involve the activities for community development, refresher course for CHPs should be reinforced and supervision mechanism of the CHPs should be established and operated in Gun- and province- level.
Prevalence of Hypertension Among the Aged in Urban Area.
Suck Bum Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1987;4(1):123-128.   Published online August 31, 1987
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1987.4.1.123
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To estimate the prevalence of hypertension among the aged in urban area, the blood pressure was examined on the subjects of 565 men and 762 women of 65 years old and older among the residents of Nam-Ku and Soosung-Ku in Taegu between January and December, 1986. The mean systolic blood pressure was 136.0±25.01 mmHg in male and 133.0±24.56 mmHg in female. The mean diastolic blood pressure was 83.7±14.41 mmHg in male and 82.4±14.43mmHg in female. There was no significant differences between male and female in both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. According to WHO category, the prevalence of pure systolic hypertension (≥169/≤95 mmHg) was 7.8% in male and 6.8% in female. The prevalence of pure diastolic hypertension (≥160/≤95 mmHg) was 6.0% in male and 3.9% in female. The prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertension (≥160/≤95 mmHg) was 13.5% in male and 12.9% in female. According to Joint National Committee category, the percentage of normal blood pressure (/<90 mmHg) was 46.7% in male and 50.8% in female. The prevalence of mild hypertension (/90=104 mmHg) was 34.5% in male and 34.6% in female. The prevalence of moderate hypertension (/105=114 mmHg) was 5.1% in male and 2.5% in female. The prevalence of severe hypertension (/≥115 mmHg) was 2.3% in male and 2.5% in female. The prevalence of borderline isolated systolic hypertension (140-159/<90 mmHg) was 9.0% in male and 6.6% in female. The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension (≥160/<90 mmHg) was 2.3% in male and 2.5% in female.
Hemoglobin Concentration in Female Workers of Occupational Exposure to Lead.
Nan Kyu Park, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):73-79.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.73
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lead on the incidence of anemia and to find cases with lead poisoning early among female workers who have been exposed to lead occupationally, for one year from August, 1985. The level of blood lead and hemoglobin concentration were observed for 284 female lead workers and 123 female non-lead workers of industries in the Gumi industrial complex in Kyungpook Province. The average age was 20.3±2.9 years and 21.1±3.5 years in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. The average working duration was 26.46±19.26 months in lead workers. The mean value of blood lead was 30.11±6.61 µg/100 ml and 21.86±3.75 µg/100 ml in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. There were significant differences between two groups. The mean value of hemoglobin concentration was 14.00±0.57 g/100 ml and 14.03±0.64 g/100 ml in lead workers and non-lead workers, respectively. Anemia cases were not observed at Hb concentration below 12g/100 ml. The percentages of lead workers at Hb concentration ranged 12.0~13.0 g/100 ml were 4.5%. There was no dose-response relationship between blood lead level and the incidence of anemia. There were no remarkable differences between age and blood lead level as well as Hb concentration, and between working duration and the level of blood lead and hemoglobin.
Evaluation of the Mental Health Status of the Aged by Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale.
Jung Hoon Lee, Byung Tak Park, Seung Douk Cheung, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1984;1(1):121-128.   Published online December 31, 1984
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1984.1.1.121
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The authors studied on anxiety, using Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), on the subjects of 329 men and 522 women of 60 years old and older. This study was carried out for 8 months from November 1983 to June 1984 in the area of Seoul, Taegu and Kyungsan Gun, Kungpook province. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the means of total anxiety scores between the two groups of men and women. The anxiety scores in items of sweating, apprehension, dyspnea, restlessness and insomnia were relatively high in both groups. The scores of faintness, panic, fear, tremor and facial flushing were low in both groups. Among 329 men, 48 (14.6%) showed rather serious anxiety level of score 50 or higher, while 153 of 522 women (29.4%) showed the same score. Among these psychosocial factors, supporter, living, place, religion and security system are significantly related with anxiety scores in both groups (p<0.01).

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science