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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Jong Yeon Kim 10 Articles
The Effect of Probiotic on Constipation in Rats.
Jin Hee Kim, Sung Chul Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Yoon Ki Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2009;26(2):102-107.   Published online December 31, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2009.26.2.102
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BACKGROUND
Constipation is one of the most common disorders in Korea and Western countries. It may be related with life style, diet, physical activity, age, stress and gender, and particularly premenopausal women experience constipation more often than men due to the significant prolongation of the mean colonic transit in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic on constipation in loperamide-induced constipated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into 3 groups. Constipation was induced by administration of loperamide for 5 days, and the excreted amount as well as the number of feces was observed. Lactic acid bacteria as a probiotic were administered orally every day for 5 days. RESULTS: The results showed that loperamide administration induced severe experimental constipation in rats. The amount of feces was decreased and the number of pellets was increased by loperamide. The water content in the feces as a parameter of constipation was also decreased by loperamide. On the other hand, the dry weights of feces were not significantly different among the groups. It represents that the amount of food consumption might have been similar among the groups, and constipation was caused by delayed intestinal movement. CONCLUSION: Probiotic administration for 5 days in rats partly alleviated or prevented the constipation induced by loperamide.
Effects of Regular Treadmill Running on GLUT4 Protein of Skeletal Muscle in STZ-diabetic Rats.
Jong yeon Kim, Hyung il Bae, So young Park, Yong woon Kim, Suck kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1998;15(2):341-349.   Published online December 31, 1998
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1998.15.2.341
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular treadmill running on GLUT4 protein of skeletal muscle in STZ-diabetic rats. I used 19 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 140 to 160 grams. Rats were randomly assigned into normal, diabetes(DM) and DE(DE) groups. The exercise was loaded with treadmill running for 5 days per week during 4 weeks. All experimental procedures were carried out following overnight fasting 48 hours after last exercise. Gain(gm) in body weight in DM rats(82+/-2.4) was lowered compared to normal rats(109+/-2.8), and decreased by exercise. Plasma glucose concentration(mg/dl) in DM rats was 143+/-3.1 which is higher than that of normal group of 103+/-6.4. The concentration of DE group was lower than that of DM rats. Plasma insulin concentration(micronU/ml) of DM and DE rats was significantly lowerd compared to normal rats. There was no difference of plasma concentrations of FFA and HDL cholesterol among noraml, DM and DE groups. Plasma triglyceride concentration(mg/dl) was significantly highered in DM group compared to those of DM group, the concentration of DE group was lower. Glycogen concentration(mg/gm wet weight) of the plantaris muscle in DM and DE groups was significantly reduced compared to normal group. Glucose transporter 4(GLUT4) protein of soleus was analyzed by Western blot. In DM group, the GLUT4 protein level was markdly decreased compared to normal group, but the level was recovered to the level of normal group by 4 weeks treadmill running. In conclusion, the insulin resistance induced by STZ administration was partially improved by 4 weeks physical training in rats.
Insulin Resistance in Late Pregnant Rats.
Myung Heup Chun, Yong Woon Kim, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(2):319-330.   Published online December 31, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.2.319
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The influence of normal late pregnancy on insulin action and insulin secretion was studied in the Sprague-Dawley female rats. On 20th day after mating, intravenous glucose tolerance test(IVGTI) was performed in non pregnant control and pregnant rats. As results of IVGTT, glucose disappearance rate was not significantly different in both groups, but secretory response of insulin was significantly(p<0.05) increased in pregnant rat. And the ratio of insulin/ .glucose was significantly higher in pregnant rats, which means existence of insulin resistance. These insulin resistance was overcomed by increased secretory response of pancreatic insulin. Insulinogenic index( A insulin/glucose - 5 min) was highly significantly (r=0.62, p<0.01) correlated with progesterone concentration. Glycogen level and amounts of "C-glucose incorporated into glycogen after IVGTT were significantly(p<0. 05) decreased in the liver, but were not changed significantly in soleus. Glycogen synthase activity of soleus and liver was not differ significantly in the both groups. Insulin binding at varying concentrations of insulin to crude membrane of pregnant liver was not significantly different from control. In conclusions, although these pregnant rats were normal glucose tolerance due to increased secretory response of insulin, that was correlated with progesterone concentration, pregnant rat had insulin resistance. The mechanisms of insulin resistance were not related to defect of insulin binding phase and glycogen synthase, but suggest pre-receptor and/or postreceptor phase.
Effect of Persistent Mild Hyperglycemic Hyperinsulinemia on Development of Insulin Resistance in Rats
Yong Woon Kim, Jin Hyun Park, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(2):269-281.   Published online December 31, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.2.269
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The effect of persistant mild hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia on the development of the insulin resistance in rats was studied in vivo. Also, the characteristics of the insulin resistance compared with the insulin resistance of STZ diabetic rats. Persistant mild hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic rat model was produced by ingestion of glucose polymer for 8 days. The glucose disappearance and infusion rate was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to"Imique at steady state of blood glucose and insulin levels. The clamped level of blood glucose was 100 mg/dl, and the clamped levels of insulin were 70 pU/ml (physiologic condition) and 3000 pU/ml (supramaximal condition). Hepatic glucose producticon rate was calculated using measured data. And the glycogen synthetic capacity of skeletal muscle (soleus) and liver was measured after 2 hours of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study. The glucose disappearance and glucose infusion rate in glucose polymer group was decreased in the both physiological and supramaximal insulin level compared to the rate of the normal control group. The rate of STZ diabetic group was lowest at supramaximal insulin level among two another experimental groups. The hepatic glucose production rate of glucose polymer group was decreased compared to normal control but increased in STZ diabetic group. The glycogen synthetic capacity of skeletal muscle and liver of glucose polymer group was not significantly different from normal control group, but it was markedly decreased in STZ diabetic group. These results suggest that persistant mild hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia may induce insulin resistance, but glycogen synthetic capacity is intact.
Insulin Resistance in the Peripheral Tissue.
Suck Kang Lee, Jong Yeon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1994;11(1):1-15.   Published online June 30, 1994
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1994.11.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
The effect of regular physical exercise on glucose uptake in soleus and intravenous glucose tolerance in streptozotocin diabetic rats.
Myung Heup Chun, Yong Woon Kim, Jong Yeon Kim, Young Man Lee, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):121-129.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.121
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The effect of exercise on plasma insulin, free fatty acid, and glucose uptake and glycogen concentration in soleus, and intravenous glucose tolerance of streptozotocin treated, diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Diabetic-trained animals were subjected to a regular program of treadmill running for 4 weeks. Seventy-two hours after the last training session, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was studied in incubated strips (about 20 mg) of soleus muscle in vitro. Glucose tolerance was measured with intravenous infusion of 0.5 g glucose/kg body weight. In diabetic rats, training was associated with increase glucose uptake in basal and maximal insulin concentrations, decreased fasting glucose concentrations, and increased muscle glycogen levels, but there were no changes in glucose tolerance curve and plasma insulin concentrations. These results suggest that regular running program for 4 weeks improve responsiveness of insulin on soleus muscle, but fails to cause improvement of impaired intravenous glucose tolerance in mild degree streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Effects of insulin and exercise on glucose uptake of skeletal muscle in diabetic rats.
Jin Hyun Park, Young Woon Kim, Jong Yeon Kim, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(1):29-37.   Published online June 30, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.1.29
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The effects of insulin and exercise on glucose uptake of skeletal muscle were investigated in soleus muscle isolated from low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rat in vitro. Glucose uptake was assessed by measuring ³H-methylglucose uptake in vitro. Basal glucose uptake in diabetes was reduced by approximately one-third of the control value (5.6±0.73µMol/g/20min. in diabetes versus 8.4±0.77 in control, P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease (P<0.01) in glucose uptake of diabetes at physiologic insulin concentration (200 µIU/ml) by 40% (6.1±1.20 versus 10.0±0.81). Furthermore, maximal insulin (20000 µIU/ml)-stimulated glucose uptake was 36% lower in diabetes as compared with control (7.3±1.29 versus 11.4±1.29, P<0.01). In contrast, exercise (1.0 km/hr, treadmill running for 45 min.) effect on glucose uptake was so dramatic in diabetes that glucose uptake at basal state was 8.+1.09 and insulin stimulated-glucose uptake were 10.2±1.47 and 11.9±1.64, in 200 and 20000 µIU/ml added insulin, respectively. These results suggest that insulin insensitivity develops in skeletal muscle after 2 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, but these insensitivity was recovered significantly by single session of running exercise.
Glucose incorporation into glycogen molecules of hypertrophied slow and fast twitch muscles in vitro.
Yong Woon Kim, Jong Yeon Kim, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1990;7(1):19-27.   Published online June 30, 1990
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1990.7.1.19
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This investigation was undertaken to clarify the in vitro effect of the various stimulations, such as exercise (E), insulin (I) direct electrical stimulation (EST) and the combinations of the above, on the glucose incorporation intro glycogen molecules (glycogen synthesis) of the normal slow (soleus) and fast twitch (plantaris) muscles, and the different responses of slow and fast twitch muscles to persistent overloads causing compensatory muscle hypertrophy. In resting state, slow twitch muscle has greater capacity for glycogen synthesis than fast twitch muscle, and responses of different muscle to various stimuli were differ as follows: In slow twitch muscle, the glycogen synthesis was increased by insulin, and electrical stimulation but not increased by exercise; exercise increased insulin sensitivity and the effect of electrical stimulation. Whereas the glycogen synthesis in fast twitch muscle was increased only by the stimuli combined with E and EST, and E, I, and EST. As the result of removal of synergistic muscle, both muscles were hypertrophied, and the degree of hypertrophy in response to persistent overload was higher in fast twitch muscle (182%) than slow twitch muscle (151%). In hypertrophied muscles, glycogen synthesis of soleus in any groups was lower than that of the control, but similar in plantaris. In conclusions, there were marked heterogeneity in different muscle fiber in the effects of exercise and insulin addition and electrical stimulation on muscle glycogen synthesis, and fast twitch muscle may be adapted more easily to that kind of persistent overload than slow twitch muscle.
The Effect of Exercise on the Conversion Rate of Ingested Glucose to Glycogen in the Hindlimb Skeletal Muscles in Rats.
Kyung Hwa Jung, Jong Yeon Kim, Yong Woon Kim, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1988;5(2):79-86.   Published online December 31, 1988
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1988.5.2.79
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In the present study the effect of exercise on the conversion rate of ingested glucose to glycogen in the different types of hindlimb skeletal muscles in Sprague-Dawley male rats was studied. The amounts of synthetized glycogen from ingested glucose of fast-twitch white (WV), fast-twitch red (RV), mixed type of fast-twitch white and red (EDL), and slow-twitch (SOL) muscles were determined at 30 and 90 min. after ingestion of 25% glucose solution which contained 14C-glucose(2 ml(luCi)/100gm B.W.) in control and exercise loaded rats. The result was summarized as follows: The about 55% at 30 min. and 70% at 90 min. after glucose ingestion were absorbed from gastrointestinal tract. This result shows no effects of exercise on absorption rate from gastrointestinal tract. The amount of synthetized glycogen of SOL from ingested glucose at 30 and 90 min. after glucose ingestion were highest, whether WV were lowest in hindlimb skeletal muscles in control and exercise loaded rats. In the exercise loaded rats, the amounts of synthetized glycogen of SOL, RV, and EDL at 90 min. after glucose ingestion was much higher than control rats, but not different in WV between exercise-loaded and control rats. At 30 min. after glucose ingestion, only SOL of exercise loaded rats was higher than control rats. In the control rat, the synthesis of glycogen was almost completed during initial 30 minutes. On the other hand, in the exercise loaded rat, except WV was opposite result of control rats, i.e., amounts of synthetized glycogen were major during late period. The amount of synthetized glycogen of liver at 30 and 90 min. after glucose ingestion in exercise loaded rats was higher than control rats. The rate of glycogen synthesis in control and exercise loaded rats were higher between 30-90 minute than initial 30 minutes.
Effect of Short Termed Fasting on the Usage Patterns of Metabolic Energy Sources during Exercise in Man.
Jong Yeon Kim, Young Man Lee, Suck Kang Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1986;3(1):269-278.   Published online December 31, 1986
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1986.3.1.269
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The purpose of this study was to know the effect of short termed fasting on the usage of metabolic energy sources and the metabolic differences between non-athletic and athletic subjects. Subjects were divided into non-athletic and athletic group and exercise was loaded on both groups after feeding and fasting. Exercise was loaded by a treadmill running at the speed of 8 km/hour for 30 minutes in both groups. The experiment yielded following results. In the fed state, the level of plasma FFA increased markedly after 15 and 30 minutes of exercise compared with it's level of pre-exercise period in both groups. In the fated state, the level of plasma FFA in non-athletic group increased steadily according to the duration of exercise, while it's level in athletic group showed no changes. At pre-exercise period, the level of plasma FFA was higher in fasted state than fed state. Immediately before the exercise and 15 and 30 minutes after the exercise, blood for the determination of plasma free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol was sampled from antecubital vein, and simultaneously heart rate was measured. In the fed state, the level of plasma glucose was increased mildly according to exercise, and in the fasted state it's level increased according to exercise in both groups also. In the fasted state, the level of plasma TG was lower than that in the fed state. The level of plasma TG and cholesterol in the fed state was no changed by the exercise from the pre-exercise period. The level of plasma cholesterol in athletic group had tendency to lower than that in non-athletic group. Heart rate increased markedly according to exercise in both groups, but the athletic group's increasing rate of heart rate was lower than the non-athletic group's heart rate increased according to exercise and athletic groups heart rate increased early period of exercise, but did not change during latest post-period of exercise.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science